Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells
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2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (19) ◽  
pp. 10817
Yu Ran Na ◽  
Jin Young Kim ◽  
Chang Ho Song ◽  
Mikyung Kim ◽  
Yen Thi Do ◽  

The dysregulation of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling has been implicated in tumorigenesis, tumor progression, angiogenesis, and chemoresistance. The small-molecule AZD4547 is a potent inhibitor of FGF receptors. This study was performed to investigate the antitumor effects and determine the mechanistic details of AZD4547 in ovarian cancer cells. AZD4547 markedly inhibited the proliferation and increased the apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells. AZD4547 also suppressed the migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells under nontoxic conditions. Furthermore, it attenuated the formation of spheroids and the self-renewal capacities of ovarian cancer stem cells and exerted an antiangiogenic effect. It also suppressed in vivo tumor growth in mice. Collectively, this study demonstrated the antitumor effect of AZD4547 in ovarian cancer cells and suggests that it is a promising agent for ovarian cancer therapy.

Biomedicines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (10) ◽  
pp. 1339
Rüdiger Klapdor ◽  
Shuo Wang ◽  
Michael A. Morgan ◽  
Katharina Zimmermann ◽  
Jens Hachenberg ◽  

Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of gynecological cancer-related death in the developed world. Disease recurrence and chemoresistance are major causes of poor survival rates in ovarian cancer patients. Ovarian cancer stem cells (CSCs) were shown to represent a source of tumor recurrence owing to the high resistance to chemotherapy and enhanced tumorigenicity. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-based adoptive immunotherapy represents a promising strategy to reduce the risk for recurrent disease. In this study, we developed a codon-optimized third-generation CAR to specifically target CD44, a marker widely expressed on ovarian cancer cells and associated with CSC-like properties and intraperitoneal tumor spread. We equipped NK-92 cells with the anti-CD44 CAR (CD44NK) and an anti-CD19 control CAR (CD19NK) using lentiviral SIN vectors. Compared to CD19NK and untransduced NK-92 cells, CD44NK showed potent and specific cytotoxic activity against CD44-positive ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV3 and OVCAR3) and primary ovarian cancer cells harvested from ascites. In contrast, CD44NK had less cytotoxic activity against CD44-negative A2780 cells. Specific activation of engineered NK cells was also demonstrated by interferon-γ (IFNγ) secretion assays. Furthermore, CD44NK cells still demonstrated cytotoxic activity under cisplatin treatment. Most importantly, the simultaneous treatment with CD44NK and cisplatin showed higher anti-tumor activity than sequential treatment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Rui Hou ◽  
Luo Jiang

Abstract Objective Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRs) are differentially expressed in ovarian cancer (OC) cells and influence OC progression. This study intended to explore the underlying roles of LINC00115 and miR-30a in OC. Methods Gene Expression Omnibus database was used to find OC microarray datasets and bioinformatics analysis predicted the potential molecular mechanism of OC. OC stem cells (OCSCs) surface marker was isolated from human OC cell line and identified. CD133+ OCSCs were transfected with LINC00115, miR-30a and SOX9 alone or together to detect sphere-forming ability and apoptosis of OCSCs. Caspase-3 activity and DNA damage in cell supernatant were detected. The levels of CD44, NANOG, POU5F1, LINC00115, CD133, miR-30a and SOX9 were measured. Then sh-LNC00115-treated OCSCs were added with Wnt/β-catenin activator SKL2001 to observe the changes of cell stemness and activity. Finally, animal models were established to evaluate the effect of LINC00115 on OCSC in vivo. Results LINC00115 and SOX9 were highly expressed in OC, while miR-30a was lowly expressed. After silencing LINC00115 or overexpressing miR-30a, the sphere-forming rate of CD133+ OCSC and levels of CD133, CD44, NANOG and POU5F1 decreased, while apoptotic rate, Caspase-3 activity and histone-related DNA damage increased. SOX9 reversed these trends. Additionally, LINC00115 could bind to miR-30a and miR-30a could target SOX9. SKL2001 partially reversed cell stemness and activity in sh-LNC00115-treated OCSCs. Finally, silencing LINC00115 could inhibit OCSCs growth in vivo. Conclusion LINC00115 promoted stemness and inhibited apoptosis of OCSCs by upregulating SOX9 and in activating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway through competitively binding to miR-30a.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (12) ◽  
pp. 3052
Ana F. Cruz ◽  
Mariana B. Caleiras ◽  
Nuno A. Fonseca ◽  
Nélio Gonçalves ◽  
Vera M. Mendes ◽  

Targeting multiple cellular populations is of high therapeutic relevance for the tackling of solid tumors heterogeneity. Herein, the ability of pegylated and pH-sensitive liposomes, functionalized with the nucleolin-binding F3 peptide and containing doxorubicin (DXR)/C6-ceramide synergistic combination, to target, in vitro, ovarian cancer, including ovarian cancer stem cells (CSC), was assessed. The underlying molecular mechanism of action of the nucleolin-mediated intracellular delivery of C6-ceramide to cancer cells was also explored. The assessment of overexpression of surface nucleolin expression by flow cytometry was critical to dissipate differences identified by Western blot in membrane/cytoplasm of SKOV-3, OVCAR-3 and TOV-112D ovarian cancer cell lines. The former was in line with the significant extent of uptake into (bulk) ovarian cancer cells, relative to non-targeted and non-specific counterparts. This pattern of uptake was recapitulated with putative CSC-enriched ovarian SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 sub-population (EpCAMhigh/CD44high). Co-encapsulation of DXR:C6-ceramide into F3 peptide-targeted liposomes improved cytotoxic activity relative to liposomes containing DXR alone, in an extent that depended on the intrinsic resistance to DXR and on the incubation time. The enhanced cytotoxicity of the targeted combination was mechanistically supported by the downregulation of PI3K/Akt pathway by C6-ceramide, only among the nucleolin-overexpressing cancer cells presenting a basal p-Akt/total Akt ratio lower than 1.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (10) ◽  
pp. 5059
Wookyeom Yang ◽  
Dasol Kim ◽  
Dae Kyoung Kim ◽  
Kyung Un Choi ◽  
Dong Soo Suh ◽  

Ovarian cancer is a fatal gynecological malignancy. Although first-line chemotherapy and surgical operation are effective treatments for ovarian cancer, its clinical management remains a challenge owing to intrinsic or acquired drug resistance and relapse at local or distal lesions. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small subpopulation of cells inside tumor tissues, and they can self-renew and differentiate. CSCs are responsible for the cancer malignancy involved in relapses as well as resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. These malignant properties of CSCs are regulated by cell surface receptors and intracellular pluripotency-associated factors triggered by internal or external stimuli from the tumor microenvironment. The malignancy of CSCs can be attenuated by individual or combined restraining of cell surface receptors and intracellular pluripotency-associated factors. Therefore, targeted therapy against CSCs is a feasible therapeutic tool against ovarian cancer. In this paper, we review the prominent roles of cell surface receptors and intracellular pluripotency-associated factors in mediating the stemness and malignancy of ovarian CSCs.

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