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2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Peter Ejbye-Ernst ◽  
Marie Rosenkrantz Lindegaard ◽  
Wim Bernasco

Objective: While previous research agrees that third-parties often manage to de-escalate interpersonal conflicts when they intervene, we still know little about how they achieve this influence. The aim of the current study is to address this gap in the literature by investigating how third-parties de-escalate conflicts. Method: We conduct a two-part qualitative analysis of CCTV footage of 48 real-life conflicts from the streets of Amsterdam. The first part consists of an inductive analysis of CCTV-footage investigating the typical sequence of de-escalatory interventions. The second part consists of a deductive coding based on the findings from part 1 of the analysis. Results: We identify an ideal-typical model of de-escalation consisting of three phases: objection, separation, and placation. This model describes how third-parties adapt their intervention to the reaction of the antagonists of the conflict through a contingency principle: when the current phase of intervention fails to de-escalate the conflict, the third-party proceeds to the following phase of the model. We also identify observable intervention behaviors that are characteristic of each of the three phases. Conclusions: The findings demonstrate that there is not one way to de-escalate a conflict, but rather that third-parties are successful because they adapt their intervention to the situation at hand. The findings of this study imply that if we want to get closer to understanding when third-party interventions are effective, we need to acknowledge the complexity of these interventions and move beyond the action/inaction dichotomy.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 296
Author(s):  
Shiyao Zhang ◽  
Huaiyong Shao ◽  
Xiaoqin Li ◽  
Wei Xian ◽  
Qiufang Shao ◽  
...  

Urbanization has not only promoted economic development, but also significantly changed land use and development strategy. The environmental problems brought by urbanization threaten ecological security directly. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce changes in land use when constructing an ecological security pattern. This study takes the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration, one of the most economically developed regions in China, as the research area. Based on its land use status, the Cellular Automata–Markov model was used to predict the quantitative change and transfer of land-use types in 2025, and three types of land-use patterns were simulated under different scenarios. Combined with the pressure–state–response model, the Entropy TOPSIS comprehensive evaluation model is used to evaluate the three phases in the years of 2005, 2010, and 2015, and the results indicated that the safety level dropped from 85.45% to 82.94%. Five spatial associations were obtained from the spatial autocorrelation analysis using GeoDA, and the clustering distribution of the three phases was roughly the same. Based on the requirements of “Natural Growth” scenario, “Urban Sprawl” scenario, and “Ecological Protection” scenario, the transfer matrix of the various land-use types were modified rationally. The results of scenario simulations illustrated that the level of urbanization was inversely proportional to the level of ecological security. The surrounding cities in the northern part of Taihu Lake were developing rapidly, with low levels of ecological security. The hilly cities in the southern part, in contrast, developed slowly and had a high level of ecological security. Based on the temporal and spatial changes in the ecosystem, an ecosystem optimization model was proposed to determine the ecological functional areas. The nature of each functional area provided the basis to formulate urban construction and management plans and achieve sustainable urban development.


Author(s):  
Mikhail Teppone

- Background. Since the previous study dealing with the case fatality ratio and infection fatality ratio caused by COVID-19, the author has received many comments that prompted the question: "Why did an optimistic prognosis fail?" To answer this question, a more detailed and expanded analysis was carried out in a new study. - Objective. To evaluate the dynamics of monthly numbers of cases, deaths, tests and CFR worldwide during three phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. - Material and Methods. Twenty three sets of databases, dated the 22nd of each month from January 2020 to November 2021, for 213 countries were collected from the Worldometer website. The number of cases, deaths, tests, CFR, IFR, etc. were counted for various periods of time for each of the 213 countries, then results related to different periods of time were compared. - Results. The analysis of the main epidemiological parameters led to the division of three phases of the global pandemic evolution. The first phase (23.01.20-22.07.20), the second phase (23.07.20-22.01.21) and the third phase (23.01.21-22.07.21) were different in terms of the number of tests performed, new cases, and mortality due to COVID-19. By the end of the secondphase, the worldwide statistics indicated the imminent end of the pandemic, but the third phase was characterized by a sudden rise in the number of new cases and deaths that could not be explained rationally. The most dramatic evolution of the epidemic curve occurred in the countries where doctors had successfully battled COVID-19 during the first two phases of the pandemic. - Conclusions. Despite the decrease in overall death numbers during the latest months analyzed, additional study is necessary to identify the cause for the increase in the number of new cases and deaths during the third phase of the pandemic. Only complete information regarding the positive and negative impact of medical and non-medical methods of diagnostics and prophylaxis of COVID-19 can help to organize effective measures to end the current pandemic and prevent a similar one from occurring in the future. Presumably, there are several causes of the negative evolution of the current pandemic, including the overreliance on PCR tests, application of non-specialized premises for quarantine and treatment, decrease in herd and individual immunity, inadequate change of therapeutic protocols, and ignoring prophylactic treatment. It can be suggested that the use of immunemodulatory drugs, for example, thymus extract or thymic peptides, in groups of people with compromised immunity is necessary, and prophylactic and therapeutic protocols should be changed from the 'standard' types to 'personalized' ones.


Author(s):  
Jeremy S Liang

Automotive troubleshooting process integrates repairing activities that are executed through auto professionals when they note phenomenon or conditions and determine about inspections, instructions, or checks, so as to tackle the trouble that affects a car. This study is focused on the knowledge representation for the aim of decision making in automotive troubleshooting process for automotive braking system. To reach this purpose, there are three phases followed: (1) a knowledge representation with procedural mode is investigated from an aspect of decision making; (2) a simple, instinctive, and efficient architecture of automotive knowledge formalization is presented; (3) an approach to generate troubleshooting procedures is defined. A new form, named diagram of expanded transformation (DoET), to represent knowledge and depict three fundamental tiers of decision making in the present or future disposal: processing strategy, quantity, and inapplicability. The approach can be also utilized manually to create DoETs from auto repair manuals (ARMs) or to build them spontaneously applying the messages feasible on workshop lists regarding single, multi-tier troubleshooting processes. The DoETs with auto repair manuals for auto braking system is validated. The acquired model can be utilized as a base structure for troubleshooting assisted systems generation.


Author(s):  
Ryan Thomas ◽  
Stephan Schmidt ◽  
Stefan Siedentop

Urban spatial structure is increasingly characterized by polycentricity, the presence of multiple interconnected centers of similar size. Polycentricity indicators, which influence research and policies related to urban development, rely on three phases of analysis: (a) delineating regions, (b) identifying subcenters within these regions, and (c) operationalizing polycentricity; and each phase contains decision points for analysts. This paper argues that polycentricity methodologies should be thought of in terms of pathways, then systematically applies 15 such pathways to the case of German regional polycentricity and compares the results. Findings suggest that questions of polycentricity are more robustly measured by comparing across multiple regional delineation methods and selection of subcenters, then looking for signs of agreement or disagreement. When possible, constructing regions from larger areas through bottom-up methods tends to avoid the biases of administratively defined regions. When this is not possible, statistical approaches to subcenter identification can serve as a check to avoid forced selection of subcenters in poorly defined regions.


Author(s):  
Ikhlas Hameem Shallal ◽  
Nidhal Moosa Abdul-Ameer ◽  
Shaimaa Qassim Abdul-Hasan ◽  
Moafak cadhem Abdulrida

Abstract Vanadium dioxide nanofilms are one of the most essential materials in electronic applications like smart windows. Therefore, studying and understanding the optical properties of such films is crucial to modifying the parameters that control these properties. To this end, this work focuses on investigating the opacity as a function of the energy directed at the nanofilms with different thicknesses (1 – 100) nm. Effective mediator theories (EMTs), which are considered as the application of Bruggeman's formalism and the Looyenga mixing rule, have been used to estimate the dielectric constant of VO2 nanofilms. The results show different opacity behaviors at different wavelength ranges (ultraviolet, visible, and infrared). The results depict that the highest opacity of the insulating phase is achieved at the ultraviolet region and it reduces for the metal phase. Besides, the results demonstrate that the opacity possesses a redshift during the changes at the three phases. Regarding the infrared region, the lowest opacity value is achieved at the insulator phase and it increases to the highest value at the metal phase. In the visible region, the opacity behavior remains similar in the three phases. It is worth noting that the lowest opacity is found for thinner nanofilm. Since both the refractive index and the extinction index are among the most essential optical constants, hence, both of them were compared with the experiment results, and an excellent agreement is achieved between them.


2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Nse Udoh ◽  
Effanga Effanga

PurposeThis work seeks to develop a geometric imperfect preventive maintenance (PM) and replacement model (GIPMAR) for aging repairable systems due to age and prolong usage that would meet users need in three phases: within average life span, beyond average life span and beyond initial replacement age of system.Design/methodology/approachThe authors utilized the geometric process (GP) as the hazard function to characterize the increasing failure rate (IFR) of the system. The GP hazard function was incorporated into the hybridized preventive and replacement model of Lin et al. (2000). The resultant expected cost rate function was optimized to obtain optimum intervals for PM/replacement and required numbers of PM per cycle. The proposed GIPMAR model was applied to repairable systems characterized by Weibull life function and the results yielded PM/replacement schedules for three different phases of system operation.FindingsThe proposed GIPMAR model is a generalization of Lin et al. (2000) PM model that were comparable with results of earlier models and is adaptive to situations in developing countries where systems are used across the three phases of operation depicted in this work. This may be due to economic hardship and operating environment.Practical implicationsThe proposed model has provided PM/Replacement schedules for different phases of operation which was never considered. This would provide a useful guide to maintenance engineers and end-users in developing countries with a view to minimizing the average cost of maintenance as well as reducing the number of down times of systems.Social implicationsA duly implemented GIPMAR model would ensure efficient operation of systems, optimum man-hour need in the organization and guarantee customer's goodwill in a competitive environment.Originality/valueIn this work, the authors have extended Lin et al. (2000) PM model to provide PM/replacement schedules for aging repairable systems which was not provided for in earlier existing models and literature.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 36-49
Author(s):  
Cynthia Senior ◽  
Angela Burrell

Due to the high-risk nature of musculoskeletal disorder development in dentistry, ergonomic education and evaluation are needed in predoctoral programs.  The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate perceptions of ergonomics within the School of Dentistry (SOD), current ergonomic clinical practices among third- and fourth-year dental students, and dental students' level of knowledge of ergonomics.  The study was conducted utilizing an explanatory sequential mixed methods design to collect both quantitative and qualitative data.  While the data collection occurred in three phases, this article will primarily focus on Phase III.  The three phases of data collection were: Phase I consisted of a questionnaire distributed to all dental students; Phase II consisted of clinical observations of third- and fourth-year dental students' ergonomic postures during patient care, and Phase III consisted of SOD faculty focus groups to determine perceptions of ergonomic education with the predoctoral curriculum.  Data revealed three overarching themes: (1) Didactic to clinical disconnect, (2) Elective impacts, and (3) A ready commitment.  Phase I yielded a response rate of 84% (n=135).  Phase I responses noted that 81.5% (n=110) of the dental students reported experiencing musculoskeletal pain.  Ninety-three dental students reported receiving one or two lectures on ergonomics; however, 60% (n=27) failed to implement proper ergonomic postures while caring for patients in the clinical environment during Phase II.  Phase III, revealed faculty support of ergonomic evaluation and correction among dental students.  The results indicated a need to establish and implement an ergonomic evaluation and corrective program within the SOD


2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
pp. 391-400
Author(s):  
Paweł Mackiewicz

The sketch is an attempt to present Jacek Łukasiewicz’s poetry against the background of the poet’s biography divided into three phases, related to the places where Łukasiewicz lived at different times: Sulistrowa, a village located in the Beskid Foothills, where he spent his childhood; Leszno, where he moved with his family in 1945 and graduated from high school, making long lasting friendships with Stanisław Grochowiak or Teodor Krupkowski; and finally Wrocław, where the poet lived continuously since 1951. Adopting a perspective close to geopoetics made it possible to focus attention on the geographical details contained in Jacek Łukasiewicz’s poems and analyze their biographical and cultural references.


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