Closed timelike curves (CTCs), non-intuitive theoretical solutions of general relativity field equations can be modelled in quantum mechanics in a way, known as Deutsch-CTCs, to circumvent one of their most paradoxical implications, namely, the so-called grandfather paradox. An outstanding theoretical result of this model is the demonstration that in the presence of a Deutsch-CTC a classical computer would be computationally equivalent to a quantum computer. In the present study, the possible implications of such a striking result for the foundations of quantum mechanics and the connections between classicality and quantumness are explored. To this purpose, a model for fundamental particles that interact in physical space exchanging carriers of momentum and energy is considered. Every particle is then supplemented with an information space in which a probabilistic classical Turing machine is stored. It is analysed whether, through the action of Darwinian evolution, both a classical algorithm coding the rules of quantum mechanics and an anticipation module might plausibly be developed on the information space from initial random behaviour. The simulation of a CTC on the information space of the particle by means of the anticipation module would imply that fundamental particles, which do not possess direct intrinsic quantum features from first principles in this information-theoretic Darwinian approach, could however generate quantum emergent behaviour in real time as a consequence of Darwinian evolution acting on information-theoretic physical systems.