vaccine response
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2022 ◽  
Vol 58 ◽  
pp. 103455
Giorgia Teresa Maniscalco ◽  
Valentino Manzo ◽  
Anne Lise Ferrara ◽  
Alessandro Perrella ◽  
Mariaelena Di Battista ◽  

npj Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Maxwell L. Neal ◽  
Fergal J. Duffy ◽  
Ying Du ◽  
John D. Aitchison ◽  
Kenneth D. Stuart

AbstractIdentifying preimmunization biological characteristics that promote an effective vaccine response offers opportunities for illuminating the critical immunological mechanisms that confer vaccine-induced protection, for developing adjuvant strategies, and for tailoring vaccination regimens to individuals or groups. In the context of malaria vaccine research, studying preimmunization correlates of protection can help address the need for a widely effective malaria vaccine, which remains elusive. In this study, common preimmunization correlates of protection were identified using transcriptomic data from four independent, heterogeneous malaria vaccine trials in adults. Systems-based analyses showed that a moderately elevated inflammatory state prior to immunization was associated with protection against malaria challenge. Functional profiling of protection-associated genes revealed the importance of several inflammatory pathways, including TLR signaling. These findings, which echo previous studies that associated enhanced preimmunization inflammation with protection, illuminate common baseline characteristics that set the stage for an effective vaccine response across diverse malaria vaccine strategies in adults.

Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 114
Nico Andreas ◽  
Sebastian Weis ◽  
Steffi Kolanos ◽  
Sabine Baumgart ◽  
Thomas Kamradt ◽  

We present here a 64-year-old male participant of the CoNAN study who experienced a PCR-confirmed mild SARS-CoV-2 infection but did not develop any measurable antibody response. Additionally, after vaccination with ChAdOx1 (AstraZeneca, Cambridge, UK) 11 months later, no antibodies were detected in six serological tests three weeks after the vaccination. When we assessed T-helper (Th) cell immunity, SARS-CoV-2-specific Th cells produced detectable amounts of IFNγ and TNF six weeks after the infection. A robust T-cell immunity remained detectable at least until six months after the infection and was boosted by the vaccination thereafter. This case report points out that an assessment of a prior infection or a vaccine response based solely on antibody detection might have limitations in individual patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Ida Wang Henriksen ◽  
Josue Leonardo Castro Mejia ◽  
Caroline Martha Junker Mentzel ◽  
Frederikke Lindenberg ◽  
Axel Kornerup Hansen

AbstractSeveral mammalian species are vaccinated in early life, but little is known about the effect of diet on vaccine response. Oligosaccharides are increasingly proposed as dietary supplement for young individuals due to their anti-inflammatory potential elicited through modulation of gut microbiota (GM). Also, diet, e.g. the size of the fat fraction, is known to modulate the GM. We tested if an oligosaccharide diet (Immulix) and/or increased dietary fat content affected antibody titers to a tetanus vaccine in 48 BALB/cJTac mice through GM modulation. Female mice had significantly higher IgG titers with higher variation compared to male mice. The effects of Immulix and/or increased fat content were minor. Immulix negatively affected IgG titers in male mice four weeks after secondary vaccination but upregulated Il1b gene expression in the spleen. Immulix had a downregulating effect on expression of Cd4 and Foxp3 in ileum only if the mice were fed the diet with increased fat. The diet with increased dietary fat increased Il1b but decreased Cd8a gene expression in the spleen. Immulix and diet affected GM composition significantly. Increased dietary fat content upregulated Lactobacillus animalis but downregulated an unclassified Prevotella spp. Immulix decreased Lactobacillales, Streptococcaceae and Prevotellaceae but increased Bacteroides. It is concluded that in spite of some minor influences on immune cell markers, cytokines and IgG titers Immulix feeding or increased dietary fat content did not have any biologically relevant effects on tetanus vaccine responses in this experiment in mice.

Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 99
Joanna Szczepanek ◽  
Monika Skorupa ◽  
Agnieszka Goroncy ◽  
Joanna Jarkiewicz-Tretyn ◽  
Aleksandra Wypych ◽  

Background: COVID-19 vaccines induce a differentiated humoral and cellular response, and one of the comparable parameters of the vaccine response is the determination of IgG antibodies. Materials and Methods: Concentrations of IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were analyzed at three time points (at the beginning of May, at the end of June and at the end of September). Serum samples were obtained from 954 employees of the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (a total of three samples each were obtained from 511 vaccinated participants). IgG antibody concentrations were determined by enzyme immunoassay. The statistical analysis included comparisons between vaccines, between convalescents and COVID-19 non-patients, between individual measurements and included the gender, age and blood groups of participants. Results: There were significant differences in antibody levels between mRNA and vector vaccines. People vaccinated with mRNA-1273 achieved the highest levels of antibodies, regardless of the time since full vaccination. People vaccinated with ChAdOx1 nCoV-2019 produced several times lower antibody levels compared to the mRNA vaccines, while the antibody levels were more stable. In the case of each of the vaccines, the factor having the strongest impact on the level and stability of the IgG antibody titers was previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. There were no significant correlations with age, gender and blood type. Summary: mRNA vaccines induce a stronger humoral response of the immune system with the fastest loss of antibodies over time.

Inna Y. Gong ◽  
Abi Vijenthira ◽  
Stephen D. Betschel ◽  
Lisa K. Hicks ◽  
Matthew C. Cheung

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
F. Gianfagna ◽  
G. Veronesi ◽  
A. Baj ◽  
D. Dalla Gasperina ◽  
S. Siclari ◽  

AbstractThe immune response after SARS-CoV-2 vaccine administration appears to be characterized by high inter-individual variation, even in SARS-CoV-2 positive subjects, who could have experienced different post-infection, unresolved conditions. We monitored anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels and kinetics along with circulating biomarkers in a cohort of 175 healthcare workers during early immunization with COVID-19 mRNA-LNP BNT162b2 vaccine, to identify the associated factors. Subjects with a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection were characterized by higher BMI and CRP levels and lower neutrophil count with respect to naïve subjects. Baseline IgG levels resulted associated with CRP independently on BMI and inflammatory diseases. Among 137 subjects undergoing vaccination and monitored after the first and the second dose, three kinetic patterns were identified. The pattern showing a rapid growth was characterized by higher IgG levels at baseline and higher CRP and MCHC levels than negative subjects. Subjects previously exposed to SARS-CoV-2 showed higher levels of CRP, suggesting persistence of unresolved inflammation. These levels are the main determinant of IgG levels at baseline and characterized subjects belonging to the best performing, post-vaccine antibody kinetic pattern.

2022 ◽  
Joana Vitalle ◽  
Alberto Perez-Gomez ◽  
Francisco Jose Ostos ◽  
Carmen Gasca-Capote ◽  
Maria Reyes Jimenez-Leon ◽  

The immune factors associated with impaired SARS-CoV-2 vaccine response in the elderly are mostly unknown. We studied old and young people vaccinated with SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 mRNA before and after the first and second dose. Aging was associated with a lower anti-RBD IgG levels and a decreased magnitude and polyfunctionality of SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell response. The dramatic decrease in thymic function in the elderly, which fueled alteration in T cell homeostasis, and lower CD161+ T cell levels were associated with decreased T cell response two months after vaccination. Additionally, a deficient dendritic cell (DC) homing, activation and Toll like receptor (TLR)-mediated function, along with a proinflammatory functional profile in monocytes, were observed in the elderly, which was also related to lower specific T cell response after vaccination. These findings might be relevant for the improvement of the current vaccination strategies and for the development of new vaccine prototypes.

2022 ◽  
Lu M Yang ◽  
Cristina Costales ◽  
Muthukumar Ramanathan ◽  
Philip L. Bulterys ◽  
Kanagavel Murugesan ◽  

Importance: Data on the humoral and cellular immune response to primary and booster SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in immunosuppressed patients is limited. Objective: To determine humoral and cellular response to primary and booster vaccination in immunosuppressed patients and identify variables associated with poor response. Design: Retrospective observational cohort study. Setting: Large healthcare system in Northern California. Participants: This study included patients fully vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 (mRNA-1273, BNT162b2, or Ad26.COV2.S) who underwent clinical testing for anti-SARS-SoV-2 S1 IgG ELISA (anti-S1 IgG) and SARS-CoV-2 interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) from January 1, 2021 through November 15, 2021. A cohort of 18 immunocompetent volunteer healthcare workers were included as reference. No participants had a prior diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Exposure(s): Immunosuppressive diseases and therapies. Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s): Humoral and cellular SARS-CoV-2 vaccine response as measured by anti-S1 IgG and SARS-CoV-2 IGRA, respectively, after primary and booster vaccination. Results: 496 patients (54% female; median age 50 years) were included in this study. Among immunosuppressed patients after primary vaccination, 62% (261/419) had positive anti-S1 IgG and 71% (277/389) had positive IGRA. After booster, 69% (81/118) had positive anti-S1 IgG and 73% (91/124) had positive IGRA. Immunosuppressive factors associated with low rates of humoral response after primary vaccination included anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (n=48, P<.001), sphingosine 1-phsophate (S1P) receptor modulators (n=11, P<.001), mycophenolate (n=78, P=.002), and B cell lymphoma (n=55, P=.004); those associated with low rates of cellular response included S1P receptor modulators (n=11, P<.001) and mycophenolate (n=69, P<.001). Of patients who responded poorly to primary vaccination, 16% (4/25) with hematologic malignancy or primary immunodeficiency developed a significantly increased humoral response after the booster dose, while 52% (14/27) with solid malignancy, solid organ transplantation, or autoimmune disease developed an increased response (P=.009). Only 5% (2/42) of immunosuppressed patients developed a significantly increased cellular response following the booster dose. Conclusions and Relevance: Cellular vaccine response rates were higher than humoral response rates in immunosuppressed individuals after primary vaccination, particularly among those undergoing B cell targeting therapies. However, humoral response can be increased with booster vaccination, even in patients on B cell targeting therapies.

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