distribution method
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Processes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 148
Yucheng Lyu ◽  
Yuanbin Mo ◽  
Yanyue Lu ◽  
Rui Liu

Dynamic optimization is an important research topic in chemical process control. A dynamic optimization method with good performance can reduce energy consumption and prompt production efficiency. However, the method of solving the problem is complicated in the establishment of the model, and the process of solving the optimal value has a certain degree of difficulty. Based on this, we proposed a non-fixed points discrete method of an enhanced beetle antennae optimization algorithm (EBSO) to solve this kind of problem. Firstly, we converted individual beetles into groups of beetles to search for the best and increase the diversity of the population. Secondly, we introduced a balanced direction strategy, which explored extreme values in new directions before the beetles updated their positions. Finally, a spiral flight mechanism was introduced to change the situation of the beetles flying straight toward the tentacles to prevent the traditional algorithm from easily falling into a certain local range and not being able to jump out. We applied the enhanced algorithm to four classic chemical problems. Meanwhile, we changed the equal time division method or unequal time division method commonly used to solve chemical dynamic optimization problems, and proposed a new interval distribution method—the non-fixed points discrete method, which can more accurately represent the optimal control trajectory. The comparison and analysis of the simulation test results with other algorithms for solving chemical dynamic optimization problems show that the EBSO algorithm has good performance to a certain extent, which further proves the effectiveness of the EBSO algorithm and has a better optimization ability.

2022 ◽  
Aniket Gupta ◽  
Alix Reverdy ◽  
Jean-Martial Cohard ◽  
Didier Voisin ◽  
Basile Hector ◽  

Abstract. From the micro to mesoscale, water and energy budgets of mountainous catchments are largely driven by topographic features such as terrain orientation, slope, steepness, elevation together with associated meteorological forcings such as precipitation, solar radiation and wind. This impact the snow deposition, melting and transport, which further impact the overall water cycle. However, this microscale variability is not well represented in Earth System Models due to coarse resolutions, and impacts of such resolution assumptions on simulated water and energy budget lack quantification. This study aims at exploring these effects on a 15.28 ha small mid-elevation (2000–2200 m) alpine catchment at Col du Lautaret (France). This grass-dominated catchment remains covered with snow for 5 to 6 months per year. The surface-subsurface coupled hyper-resolution (10 m) distributed hydrological model ParFLOW-CLM is used to simulate the impacts of meteorological variability at spatio-temporal micro-scale on the water cycle. These include 3D simulations with spatially distributed forcing of precipitation, solar radiation and wind compared to 3D simulations with non-distributed forcing simulation. Our precipitation distribution method encapsulates the spatial snow distribution along with snow transport. The model simulates the snow cover dynamics and spatial variability through the CLM energy balance module and under the different combinations of distributed forcing. The resulting subsurface and surface water transfers are solved by the ParFLOW module. Distributed forcing induce a snowpack with a more spatially heterogeneous thickness, which becomes patchy during the melt season and shows a good agreement with the remote sensing images. This asynchronous melting results in a longer melting period and smoother hydrological response than the non-distributed forcing, which does not generate any patchiness. Amongst the tested distributed meteorological forcing that impacts the hydrology, precipitation distribution, including snow transportation, is the most important. Solar insolation distribution has an important impact in reducing evapotranspiration depending on the slope orientation. For the studied catchment mainly facing east, it adds small differential melting effect. Wind distribution in the energy budget calculation has a more complicated impact on our catchment as it participate to accelerate the melting when meteorological conditions are favourable but does not generate patchiness at the end in our test case.

2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
pp. 36-48
Elham Asgari ◽  
Mina Taghizadeh ◽  
Ahmadreza Abbasifar

Abstract Nowadays, the flower industry is growing so fast that its development requires introducing new varieties to the flower market. Iran is the habitat of numerous species of wild plants that are among the valuable genetics in the breeding process. The identification of native Iris species, investigation of morphological diversity, and distribution method have a significant effect on the introduction of this flower as new and superior cultivars cut flower and bedding plant. The documentation of the most important habitats of Iris in Arak province, identification of morphological characteristics and correlation determination of morphological traits are the most important aims of this research. The results showed that there is a correlation between some of the traits. The highest positive correlation was related to the height of flower and length of the leaf, length of the flowering stem and the length of the leaf and the height of the flower and the length of the flowering stem. The ecotypes of Iris sp. were divided into six groups. Based on the results of the cluster diagram, the bulbous species were separated from rhizome species. Generally, due to the color diversity of Iris sp. and unique beauty of the flowers and the resistance of the native species, they can be used as native foundations. Due to the prominent traits such as high durability of Iris meda, odor of I. hymernospatha Subsp. leptoneura and color diversity of I. persica, I. songarica and height of I. spuria, they can be used to introduce new ornamental species. Iris spuria is the most suitable genotype because of the high height, large flower, high durability, and beautiful flower.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 163-169
J. Jaya ◽  
A. Sasi ◽  
B. Paulchamy ◽  
K.J. Sabareesaan ◽  
Sivakumar Rajagopal ◽  

Objective: The growth of anomalous cells in the human body in an uncontrolled manner is characterized as cancer. The detection of cancer is a multi-stage process in the clinical examination. Methods: It is mainly involved with the assistance of radiological imaging. The imaging technique is used to identify the spread of cancer in the human body. This imaging-based detection can be improved by incorporating the Image Processing methodologies. In image processing, the preprocessing is applied at the lower-level abstraction. It removes the unwanted noise pixel present in the image, which also distributes the pixel values based on the specific distribution method. Results: Neural Network is a learning and processing engine, which is mainly used to create cognitive intelligence in various domains. In this work, the Neural Network (NN) based filtering approach is developed to improve the preprocessing operation in the cancer detection process. Conclusion: The performance of the proposed filtering method is compared with the existing linear and non-linear filters in terms of Mean Squared Error (MSE), Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Image Enhancement Factor (IEF).

Jurnal Fiqh ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (2) ◽  
pp. 315-344
Mohd Zainudin Wan Yusoff ◽  
Nurulhuda Ahmad Zaki ◽  
Luqman Abdullah

Inheritance is something that has material value left by a person after his death which is obtained during his life truly and becomes the perfect property during his life and is eternally owned by simati until he dies. In Malaysia, the distribution of Islamic inheritance is subject to faraid law, in which non-Muslims cannot inherit Muslim property. However, for the property of non-Muslims, there is a law that protects it, namely the Distribution (Amendment) Act 1997, Act 1004. This Act does not state that Muslims cannot inherit the inheritance of non-Muslims. The distribution is made to the heirs based on the kinship relationship and marriage regardless of religion. This means that Muslims also inherit the property of non-Muslims. The two main methods of distributing inheritance that is practiced in Malaysia are the distribution method according to Islamic law for the death of a Muslim and the distribution method according to civil law which affects the Act of Dispensing 1958 (Act 300) for the death of non-Muslims. Both mechanisms involve converts, either converts as the dead or as heirs. Those with the title of convert to Islam have their uniqueness in the distribution of inheritance which is different from the usual inheritance distribution mechanism. Due to these differences in distribution, this study was carried out to highlight the administration of inheritance laws involving converts to Islam in Malaysia. This study was conducted using a qualitative method by taking a literature review approach, also continuing the content analysis design. The results of the study highlights that have been carried out show that there have been many writings, ideas, and discussions regarding this case made by the reviewers. The results of the study found that there are procedures and provisions for laws in the settlement of inheritance involving heirs of converts if they are not Muslim, as well as if converts are heirs to the property of the dead who are not Muslim. Therefore, with an explanation of the administration of the law in this study, it can resolve errors to the public regarding the issue of inheritance and property inheritance involving converts in Malaysia.

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 108
Abid Ali ◽  
Muhammad Munawar Iqbal ◽  
Harun Jamil ◽  
Habib Akbar ◽  
Ammar Muthanna ◽  

With the increasing number of mobile devices and IoT devices across a wide range of real-life applications, our mobile cloud computing devices will not cope with this growing number of audiences soon, which implies and demands the need to shift to fog computing. Task scheduling is one of the most demanding scopes after the trust computation inside the trustable nodes. The mobile devices and IoT devices transfer the resource-intensive tasks towards mobile cloud computing. Some tasks are resource-intensive and not trustable to allocate to the mobile cloud computing resources. This consequently gives rise to trust evaluation and data sync-up of devices joining and leaving the network. The resources are more intensive for cloud computing and mobile cloud computing. Time, energy, and resources are wasted due to the nontrustable nodes. This research article proposes a multilevel trust enhancement approach for efficient task scheduling in mobile cloud environments. We first calculate the trustable tasks needed to offload towards the mobile cloud computing. Then, an efficient and dynamic scheduler is added to enhance the task scheduling after trust computation using social and environmental trust computation techniques. To improve the time and energy efficiency of IoT and mobile devices using the proposed technique, the energy computation and time request computation are compared with the existing methods from literature, which identified improvements in the results. Our proposed approach is centralized to tackle constant SyncUPs of incoming devices’ trust values with mobile cloud computing. With the benefits of mobile cloud computing, the centralized data distribution method is a positive approach.

Webology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (2) ◽  
pp. 1055-1065
Mohammad R. Hassan ◽  
Feras A. Alnaimait ◽  
Qasem Kharma ◽  
Ashraf Sharah ◽  
Khalil H. Al-Shqeerat

In any multi–device / party systems supporting GRID and cloud-based applications, an essential constraint of these systems is the need of all tools and participants to interconnect with each other as members of a group in a secure approach. Group key management method is an essential functional element for any protected distributed communication setting. Key distribution method is a crucial factor in securing communication in grid computing. After the secure key management is executed, messages will be able to be securely exchanged between the grid units. A number of protocols have been proposed to maintain secure group key management. In this paper we present a new password base protocol for secure group key management in Grid computing environment, which is organized in two dynamic servicing layers: the grid application that needs grid services, and the grid services that act on behalf of the user.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 185-196
Wara Angreni ◽  
Atiqa Sabardila

This study aims to describe the form of speech errors of the candidates for Regional Head of Kulon Progo Regency. The research method used is qualitative descriptions. The data source is the utterances of the student speech. The data collection techniques are listening and note-taking. The data analysis used referential matching techniques and articulatory phonetic equivalents, extension techniques in the distribution method and sign reading technology. The results of the study shows that there are language errors in the form of speech of the candidates for Regional Head of Kulon Progo Regency The five areas of error are (1) phonological errors including phonological change, phoneme formation and pronunciation, (2) morphological errors including prepositions, repetition, tone, and combination of meN- and -kan prefixes, (3) syntax errors including ambiguous sentences, redundant words, and unclear sentence types (4) sociolinguistic errors, including misuse of language coding in sentences, and (5) spelling errors in capital letters, and punctuation.  Penelitian ini bertujuan mendeskripsikan bentuk kesalahan berbahasa pidato mahasiswa calon kepala daerah Kabupaten Kulon Progo. Metode penelitian menggunakan deskripsi kualitatif. Data penelitian berupa tuturan pidato mahasiswa. Teknik pengumpulan simak dan catat.  Analisis data menggunakan teknik padan referensial dan padan fonetis artikulatoris, teknik perluasan dalam metode agih dan teknologi membaca tanda. Hasil penelitian terjadi kesalahan bahasa pada bentuk tuturan pidato mahasiswa calon kepala daerah Kabupaten Kulon Progo memiliki lima wilayah kesalahan yaitu (1) kesalahan fonologi termasuk kesalahan perubahan fonem, kesalahan pembentukan dan pengucapan fonem, (2) kesalahan morfologi meliputi preposisi, penulisan ulang, bentuk nada, dan tulis kombinasi prefiks meN- dan -kan, (3) kesalahan sintaks termasuk kalimat yang ambigu, rancu, kata-kata yang berlebihan, jenis kalimat yang tidak jelas (4) kesalahan sosiolinguistik, termasuk penyalahgunaan campur kode bahasa dalam kalimat, dan (5) kesalahan ejaan dalam huruf kapital, dan tanda baca.

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