microbial composition
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Dongxue Zhang ◽  
Wenyan Liu ◽  
Li Peng ◽  
Haiyan Wang ◽  
Mei Lin ◽  

Abstract Background To investigate the difference in the structural composition of salivary flora between chronic periodontitis patients with and without diabetic nephropathy (DN). Methods Thirty salivary samples of 15 chronic periodontitis patients with DN (DN group) and 15 chronic periodontitis patients with diabetes but without DN (DM group) were subjected to pyrosequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16 s ribosomal RNA genes. After diversity testing, the differential flora were analyzed. The sequencing results were compared with GenBank database to determine the type of differential flora using species composition analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, principal co-ordinate analysis, and species difference analysis. Results There were significant between-group differences with respect to Gemella, Selenomonas spp, Lactobacillales_unclassified, Bacteria-unclassified and Abiotrophia (p < 0.05). Compared with DM group, the relative abundance of Selenomonas spp. in DN group was significantly higher; the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of Selenomonas spp. was 0.713 (P < 0.05). Multi-level biological identification and feature maps indicated that Selenomonas spp. might be used as a potential biomarker for DN patients. On binary logistic regression analysis, increase of Selenomonas spp. was related with DN. Conclusions We found significant between-group differences in the structural composition of oral flora. The increase in the relative abundance of Selenomonas spp. may be associated with DN in patients with chronic periodontitis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 920
David Hutin ◽  
Karoline Alvik Hagen ◽  
Peng Shao ◽  
Kim Sugamori ◽  
Denis M. Grant ◽  

Poly-ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs) are important regulators of the immune system, including TCDD-inducible poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (TIPARP), also known as poly-ADP-ribose polymerase 7 (PARP7). PARP7 negatively regulates aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling, both of which have been implicated in intestinal homeostasis and immunity. Since the loss of PARP7 expression increases AHR and IFN-I signaling, we used a murine dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model to investigate the effect of PARP7 loss on DSS-induced intestinal inflammation. DSS-exposed Parp7−/− mice had less body weight loss, lower disease index scores, and reduced expression of several inflammation genes, including interleukin IL-6, C-x-c motif chemokine ligand 1 (Cxcl1), and lipocalin-2, when compared with wild-type mice. However, no significant difference was observed between genotypes in the colonic expression of the AHR target gene cytochrome P450 1A1 (Cyp1a1). Moreover, no significant differences in microbial composition were observed between the genotypes. Our findings demonstrate that the absence of PARP7 protein results in an impaired immune response to colonic inflammation and suggests that PARP7 may participate in the recruitment of immune cells to the inflammation site, which may be due to its role in IFN-I signaling rather than AHR signaling.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Fang Dong ◽  
Fangfei Xiao ◽  
Xiaolu Li ◽  
Youran Li ◽  
Xufei Wang ◽  

Abstract Background Compelling evidences demonstrated that gut microbiota dysbiosis plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Therapies for targeting the microbiota may provide alternative options for the treatment of IBD, such as probiotics. Here, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of a probiotic strain, Pediococcus pentosaceus (P. pentosaceus) CECT 8330, on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Methods C57BL/6 mice were administered phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or P. pentosaceus CECT 8330 (5 × 108 CFU/day) once daily by gavage for 5 days prior to or 2 days after colitis induction by DSS. Weight, fecal conditions, colon length and histopathological changes were examined. ELISA and flow cytometry were applied to determine the cytokines and regulatory T cells (Treg) ratio. Western blot was used to examine the tight junction proteins (TJP) in colonic tissues. Fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) levels and microbiota composition were analyzed by targeted metabolomics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, respectively. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Cluster of orthologous groups of proteins (COG) pathway analysis were used to predict the microbial functional profiles. Results P. pentosaceus CECT 8330 treatment protected DSS-induced colitis in mice as evidenced by reducing the weight loss, disease activity index (DAI) score, histological damage, and colon length shortening. P. pentosaceus CECT 8330 decreased the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6), and increased level of IL-10 in DSS treated mice. P. pentosaceus CECT 8330 upregulated the expression of ZO-1, Occludin and the ratio of Treg cells in colon tissue. P. pentosaceus CECT 8330 increased the fecal SCFAs level and relative abundances of several protective bacteria genera, including norank_f_Muribaculaceae, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Dubosiella. Furthermore, the increased abundances of bacteria genera were positively correlated with IL-10 and SCFAs levels, and negatively associated with IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α, respectively. The KEGG and COG pathway analysis revealed that P. pentosaceus CECT 8330 could partially recover the metabolic pathways altered by DSS. Conclusions P. pentosaceus CECT 8330 administration protects the DSS-induced colitis and modulates the gut microbial composition and function, immunological profiles, and the gut barrier function. Therefore, P. pentosaceus CECT 8330 may serve as a promising probiotic to ameliorate intestinal inflammation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Weilan Wang ◽  
Jodi E. Nettleton ◽  
Michael G. Gänzle ◽  
Raylene A. Reimer

To identify possible mechanisms by which maternal consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners increases obesity risk in offspring, we reconstructed the major alterations in the cecal microbiome of 3-week-old offspring of obese dams consuming high fat/sucrose (HFS) diet with or without aspartame (5–7 mg/kg/day) or stevia (2–3 mg/kg/day) by shotgun metagenomic sequencing (n = 36). High throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing (n = 105) was performed for dams, 3- and 18-week-old offspring. Maternal consumption of sweeteners altered cecal microbial composition and metabolism of propionate/lactate in their offspring. Offspring daily body weight gain, liver weight and body fat were positively correlated to the relative abundance of key microbes and enzymes involved in succinate/propionate production while negatively correlated to that of lactose degradation and lactate production. The altered propionate/lactate production in the cecum of weanlings from aspartame and stevia consuming dams implicates an altered ratio of dietary carbohydrate digestion, mainly lactose, in the small intestine vs. microbial fermentation in the large intestine. The reconstructed microbiome alterations could explain increased offspring body weight and body fat. This study demonstrates that intense sweet tastants have a lasting and intergenerational effect on gut microbiota, microbial metabolites and host health.

Soil Systems ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 10
Anithadevi Kenday Sivaram ◽  
Logeshwaran Panneerselvan ◽  
Kannappar Mukunthan ◽  
Mallavarapu Megharaj

Pyroligneous acid (PA) is often used in agriculture as a plant growth and yield enhancer. However, the influence of PA application on soil microorganisms is not often studied. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of PA (0.01–5% w/w in soil) on the microbial diversity in two different soils. At the end of eight weeks of incubation, soil microbial community dynamics were determined by Illumina-MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The microbial composition differed between the lower (0.01% and 0.1%) and the higher (1% and 5%) concentration in both PA spiked soils. The lower concentration of PA resulted in higher microbial diversity and dehydrogenase activity (DHA) compared to the un-spiked control and the soil spiked with high PA concentrations. Interestingly, PA-induced plant growth-promoting bacterial (PGPB) genera include Bradyrhizobium, Azospirillum, Pseudomonas, Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium, Herbaspiriluum, Acetobacter, Beijerinckia, and Nitrosomonas at lower concentrations. Additionally, the PICRUSt functional analysis revealed the predominance of metabolism as the functional module’s primary component in both soils spiked with 0.01% and 0.1% PA. Overall, the results elucidated that PA application in soil at lower concentrations promoted soil DHA and microbial enrichment, particularly the PGPB genera, and thus have great implications for improving soil health.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Nayara Santos de Oliveira ◽  
Ana Beatriz Feijão de Lima ◽  
Juliana Carvalho Regino de Brito ◽  
Ayane Cristine Alves Sarmento ◽  
Ana Katherine Silveira Gonçalves ◽  

The ovulatory cycle has a significant influence on the microbial composition, according to the action of estrogen and progesterone on the stratified squamous epithelium, due to an increase in epithelial thickness, glycogen deposition, and influence on local immunology. The 16S rRNA gene amplification and pyrosequencing study demonstrated that healthy women have community state types (CST), classified as; type “L,” with a predominance of Lactobacillus crispatus, type II, with a predominance of Lactobacillus gasseri, type III, where Lactobacillus iners predominates, and type V with a predominance of Lactobacillus jensenii. Type IV does not identify lactobacilli but a heterogeneous population of bacteria. There seems to be a relationship between increased vaginal bacterial diversity and poverty of lactobacilli with the complaining of vaginal dryness. With menopause, there appears to be a reduction in lactobacilli associated with higher serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and lower estrogen levels. The evaluation of Gram-stained vaginal smears in postmenopause women must take into account the clinical-laboratory correlation. We should observe two meanly possibilities, atrophy with few bacterial morphotypes, without inflammatory, infiltrate (atrophy without inflammation), and atrophy with evident inflammatory infiltrate (atrophy with inflammation or atrophic vaginitis). The relationship between the microbiome and postmenopausal vulvovaginal symptoms seems to be related to the bacterial vaginal population. However, more robust studies are needed to confirm this impression.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262355
Elinor Shvartsman ◽  
Meika E. I. Richmond ◽  
John J. Schellenberg ◽  
Alana Lamont ◽  
Catia Perciani ◽  

Background The microbiota of the lower female genital tract plays an important role in women’s health. Microbial profiling using the chaperonin60 (cpn60) universal target (UT) improves resolution of vaginal species associated with negative health outcomes compared to the more commonly used 16S ribosomal DNA target. However, the choice of DNA extraction and PCR product purification methods may bias sequencing-based microbial studies and should be optimized for the sample type and molecular target used. In this study, we compared two commercial DNA extraction kits and two commercial PCR product purification kits for the microbial profiling of cervicovaginal samples using the cpn60 UT. Methods DNA from cervicovaginal secretions and vaginal lavage samples as well as mock community standards were extracted using either the specialized QIAamp DNA Microbiome Kit, or the standard DNeasy Blood & Tissue kit with enzymatic pre-treatment for enhanced lysis of gram-positive bacteria. Extracts were PCR amplified using well-established cpn60 primer sets and conditions. Products were then purified using a column-based method (QIAquick PCR Purification Kit) or a gel-based PCR clean-up method using the QIAEX II Gel Extraction Kit. Purified amplicons were sequenced with the MiSeq platform using standard procedures. The overall quality of each method was evaluated by measuring DNA yield, alpha diversity, and microbial composition. Results DNA extracted from cervicovaginal samples using the DNeasy Blood and Tissue kit, pre-treated with lysozyme and mutanolysin, resulted in increased DNA yield, bacterial diversity, and species representation compared to the QIAamp DNA Microbiome kit. The column-based PCR product purification approach also resulted in greater average DNA yield and wider species representation compared to a gel-based clean-up method. In conclusion, this study presents a fast, effective sample preparation method for high resolution cpn60 based microbial profiling of cervicovaginal samples.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Zhigang Liu ◽  
Baishuang Yin

Hydatidosis/cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus is a parasitic zoonotic disease worldwide, threatening animal health and production and public health safety. However, it is still unclear that whether E. granulosus infection can result in the alteration of gut microbiota in Tibetan sheep. Therefore, a study was designed to investigate the influences of E. granulosus infection on gut microbiota of Tibetan sheep. A total of 10 ovine small intestinal contents (five from healthy and five from infected) were obtained and subjected to high-throughput sequencing by MiSeq platform. A total of 2,395,641 sequences and 585 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified. Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the most dominant phyla in all samples. Moreover, the proportions of Armatimonadetes and Firmicutes in the infected Tibetan sheep were significantly decreased, whereas Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Acidobacteria had significantly increased. At the genus level, the Christensenellaceae_R-7_group and Ruminococcaceae_NK4A214_group were the predominant bacterial genera in all the samples. Furthermore, the healthy Tibetan sheep exhibited higher abundances of Intestinimonas, Butyrivibrio, Pseudobutyrivibrio, Ruminococcaceae, Eubacterium_coprostanoligenes_group, Oxobacter, Prevotella_1, Ruminiclostridium_6, Coprococcus_1, Ruminococcus, Lachnospiraceae_UCG-002, Olsenella, and Acetitomaculum, whereas Kocuria, Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, Slackia, Achromobacter, and Stenotrophomonas levels were lower. In conclusion, our results conveyed an information that E. granulosus infection may cause an increase in pathogenic bacteria and a decrease in beneficial bacteria. Additionally, a significant dynamical change in gut microbiota could be associated with E. granulosus infection.

2022 ◽  
pp. 435-466
Kim C. M. Lammers-Jannink ◽  
Stefanía Magnúsdóttir ◽  
Wilbert F. Pellikaan ◽  
John Pluske ◽  

Dietary and endogenous protein that become available for the microbiota in the hindgut can be metabolized via different routes. They can become building blocks for the microbial cells or enter different catabolic pathways. Protein degradation via fermentation pathways is seen as a non-preferred route as it results in the formation and release of metabolites that can interfere with biological systems in the host and can have deleterious outcomes. Reducing protein fermentation and guiding the metabolism towards less toxic end-products might be possible targets for improving host health. To do so, more knowledge on factors manipulating the process of microbial protein metabolism, including on substrate availability, microbial composition and segmental differences in the hindgut, is required.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Amnon Amir ◽  
Ortal Erez-Granat ◽  
Tzipi Braun ◽  
Katya Sosnovski ◽  
Rotem Hadar ◽  

AbstractThe human gut microbiome develops during the first years of life, followed by a relatively stable adult microbiome. Day care attendance is a drastic change that exposes children to a large group of peers in a diverse environment for prolonged periods, at this critical time of microbial development, and therefore has the potential to affect microbial composition. We characterize the effect of day care on the gut microbial development throughout a single school year in 61 children from 4 different day care facilities, and in additional 24 age-matched home care children (n = 268 samples, median age of entering the study was 12 months). We show that day care attendance is a significant and impactful factor in shaping the microbial composition of the growing child, the specific daycare facility and class influence the gut microbiome, and each child becomes more similar to others in their day care. Furthermore, in comparison to home care children, day care children have a different gut microbial composition, with enrichment of taxa more frequently observed in older populations. Our results provide evidence that daycare may be an external factor that contributes to gut microbiome maturation and make-up in early childhood.

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