Microbial Composition
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2021 ◽  
Vol 51 (4) ◽  
Alba Santiago Badenas ◽  
Elena F Verdu

nflammatory bowel disease is an immune mediated condition that includes Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis and causes chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Although the exact cause for inflammatory bowel disease is unknown, there is consensus that a combination of genetic, environmental, and immune factors participate in its pathogenesis. To date, all the studies have been focused on alterations that occur once IBD has developed, however, the causes triggering the onset of the disease are still unclear. There is an evident genetic basis in which multiple genes involved in intestinal homeostasis are affected, such as NOD2, ATG16L1 and XBP1. However, these genetic factors are not sufficient for disease onset and additional environmental factors such as those related to dysregulation of gut microbiota and the immune system are required. A lower microbial diversity and a decrease in the relative abundance of Firmicutes, as well as an increase in Proteobacteria, have been described in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, but are not found in all studies. In addition to variations in microbial composition, functional changes have also been observed in cross-sectional studies. Longitudinal cohorts in patients at risk for inflammatory bowel disease have recently been conducted allowing us to interrogate whether specific microbial communities and functions could be influencing the onset of the disease. Indeed, a translational study performed in a cohort of at-risk individuals for inflammatory bowel disease (GEM cohort) showed an increased fecal proteolytic activity, associated with microbial composition changes, before the onset of ulcerative colitis. These findings may help develop new non-invasive diagnostic techniques, as well as new therapeutical approaches for inflammatory bowel disease.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Hongxia Zhang ◽  
Mingshan Song ◽  
Lili Wang ◽  
Anguo Zhang ◽  
Xiaolong Yang ◽  

Seawater acidification and warming have been found to affect the early life of many marine organisms, but their effects on the microbial community in the environment related to the early development stage of aquaculture species have been rarely investigated. To understand how seawater acidification and warming impact the microbial community in aquaculture systems, we designed four microcosms to monitor and characterize the microbial composition on the corrugated plates in the Apostichopus japonicus culture tanks during its post-settlement stage. High-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that the bacterial community composition varied significantly in different periods of incubation. The bacterial diversity and community composition were obviously changed by seawater acidification and warming in the early period and then tended to revert to the level of the control group. Acidification significantly increased the relative abundance of dominant families Rhodobacteraceae and Flavobacteriaceae in the early period, suggesting that microbiota could increase the abundance of predominant taxa to adapt to increased CO2 concentration and reconstruct a stable community structure. No interaction effect of both factors was observed in the combined group. Results reveal that the microbial communities on the corrugated plates in A. japonicus culture tank were affected in the early period of incubation, and could then acclimatize to the increased CO2 and temperature. This study provides new insights into the variation and adaptation responses of the microbiota in aquaculture systems to seawater acidification and warming.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Kristina S. Fluitman ◽  
Tim J. van den Broek ◽  
Max Nieuwdorp ◽  
Marjolein Visser ◽  
Richard G. IJzerman ◽  

AbstractPoor taste and smell function are widely thought to contribute to the development of poor appetite and undernutrition in older adults. It has been hypothesized that the oral microbiota play a role as well, but evidence is scarce. In a cross-sectional cohort of 356 older adults, we performed taste and smell tests, collected anthropometric measurements and tongue swabs for analysis of microbial composition (16S rRNA sequencing) and Candida albicans abundance (qPCR). Older age, edentation, poor smell and poor appetite were associated with lower alpha diversity and explained a significant amount of beta diversity. Moreover, a lower Streptococcus salivarius abundance was associated with poor smell identification score, whereas high C. albicans abundance seemed to be associated with poor smell discrimination score. In our population, neither the tongue microbiota, nor C. albicans were associated with poor taste or directly with undernutrition. Our findings do suggest a host-microbe interaction with regard to smell perception and appetite.

Kangqi Wu ◽  
Yongtao Xu ◽  
Weiwei Zhang ◽  
Huirong Mao ◽  
Biao Chen ◽  

We used a metagenomic approach to investigate whether and how captive and free-range impact the microbial communities and antimicrobial resistance in sika deer. The results provide solid evidence of the significant impacts on the microbial composition and function in captive and free-range sika deer. Interestingly, although the sika deer had the same exposure to antibiotic anthelmintics, the antimicrobial resistances were affected by the breeding environment.

2021 ◽  
Ying Wang ◽  
Liguo Dong ◽  
Min Zhang ◽  
Xiaoxiong Bai ◽  
Jiawen Zhang ◽  

Abstract Aims: During plantation development, microbial composition and diversity are critical for the establishment of plant diversity and multiple ecosystem functions. Here we aimed to evaluate the impacts of chronosequence and soil compartment on the bacterial and fungal community compositions, species co-occurrence, and assembly processes in forest ecosystem.Methods: Soils were collected in rhizosphere and bulk soils along a Pinus tabulaeformis plantation chronosequence (15, 30 and 60 years old). The bacterial and fungal communities were determined using amplicon sequencing.Results: The effect of stand age on the soil properties and microbial community structures was stronger than the effect of the soil compartment. In all soil samples, the dominant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi. Basidiomycota, Ascomycota, and Mortierellomycota were the dominant fungal phyla. Higher turnover rates of soil microbial communities were observed in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil. Dispersal limitation governed the bacterial and fungal community assembly in all soil samples, and the fungal community was more susceptible to dispersal limitation. The bacterial and fungal keystone species compositions in the rhizosphere had significant positive correlations with the soil total phosphorus and nitrite nitrogen and total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively, indicating their importance in soil nitrogen and phosphorus cycling. The complexity of bacterial networks increased along the chronosequence. Fungal network complexity did not show a clear age-related trend but increased from bulk soil to the rhizosphere.Conclusions: During Pinus tabulaeformis plantation development, soil microbial assembly was less environmentally constrained due to an increase in resource availability.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ananda Y. Bandara ◽  
Dilooshi K. Weerasooriya ◽  
Ryan V. Trexler ◽  
Terrence H. Bell ◽  
Paul D. Esker

The occurrence of high- (H) and low- (L) yielding field sites within a farm is a commonly observed phenomenon in soybean cultivation. Site topography, soil physical and chemical attributes, and soil/root-associated microbial composition can contribute to this phenomenon. In order to better understand the microbial dynamics associated with each site type (H/L), we collected bulk soil (BS), rhizosphere soil (RS), and soybean root (R) samples from historically high and low yield sites across eight Pennsylvania farms at V1 (first trifoliate) and R8 (maturity) soybean growth stages (SGS). We extracted DNA extracted from collected samples and performed high-throughput sequencing of PCR amplicons from both the fungal ITS and prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene regions. Sequences were then grouped into amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) and subjected to network analysis. Based on both ITS and 16S rRNA gene data, a greater network size and edges were observed for all sample types from H-sites compared to L-sites at both SGS. Network analysis suggested that the number of potential microbial interactions/associations were greater in samples from H-sites compared to L-sites. Diversity analyses indicated that site-type was not a main driver of alpha and beta diversity in soybean-associated microbial communities. L-sites contained a greater percentage of fungal phytopathogens (ex: Fusarium, Macrophomina, Septoria), while H-sites contained a greater percentage of mycoparasitic (ex: Trichoderma) and entomopathogenic (ex: Metarhizium) fungal genera. Furthermore, roots from H-sites possessed a greater percentage of Bradyrhizobium and genera known to contain plant growth promoting bacteria (ex: Flavobacterium, Duganella). Overall, our results revealed that there were differences in microbial composition in soil and roots from H- and L-sites across a variety of soybean farms. Based on our findings, we hypothesize that differences in microbial composition could have a causative relationship with observed within-farm variability in soybean yield.

PeerJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e12562
Zhiyuan Lu ◽  
Sisi Li ◽  
Hongxia Li ◽  
Zhucheng Wang ◽  
Derong Meng ◽  

Background The composition of the intestinal microbiota plays a significant role in modulating host health. It serves as a sensitive evaluation indicator and has substantial implications in protecting endangered species. Great Bustards are typical farmland-dependent wintering birds that are highly susceptible to the interference of human activities. However, information regarding their gut microbiota remains scarce. Methods To ensure a comprehensive analysis of this crucial data, we collected fecal samples from wild Great Bustards at their wintering habitat for two consecutive years. High-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was subsequently applied to characterize their core gut microbiota and determine whether the gut microbial composition was similar or varied interannually. Results The gut microbiota of the Great Bustard was primarily comprised of four phyla: Firmicutes (82.87%), Bacteroidetes (7.98%), Proteobacteria (4.49%), and Actinobacteria (3.67%), accounting for 99.01% of the microbial community in all samples. Further analysis revealed 22 genera of core microbes and several pathogens. Notably, there were no significant differences in the alpha-diversity and beta-diversity between the two sample groups from different years. Conclusions This study provides essential information for assessing the health and developing targeted protective measures of this threatened species.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Alfons R. Weig ◽  
Martin G. J. Löder ◽  
Anja F. R. M. Ramsperger ◽  
Christian Laforsch

The ubiquitous use of plastic products in our daily life is often accompanied by improper disposal. The first interactions of plastics with organisms in the environment occur by overgrowth or biofilm formation on the particle surface, which can facilitate the ingestion by animals. In order to elucidate the colonization of plastic particles by prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms in situ, we investigated microbial communities in biofilms on four different polymer types and on mineral particles in a small headwater stream 500 m downstream of a wastewater treatment plant in Germany. Microplastic and mineral particles were exposed to the free-flowing water for 4 weeks in spring and in summer. The microbial composition of the developing biofilm was analyzed by 16S and 18S amplicon sequencing. Despite the expected seasonal differences in the microbial composition of pro- and eukaryotic communities, we repeatedly observed polymer type-specific differentiation in both seasons. The order of polymer type-specific prokaryotic and eukaryotic community distances calculated by Robust Aitchison principal component analysis (PCA) was the same in spring and summer samples. However, the magnitude of the distance differed considerably between polymer types. Prokaryotic communities on polyethylene particles exhibited the most considerable difference to other particles in summer, while eukaryotic communities on polypropylene particles showed the most considerable difference to other spring samples. The most contributing bacterial taxa to the polyethylene-specific differentiation belong to the Planctomycetales, Saccharimonadales, Bryobacterales, uncultured Acidiomicrobia, and Gemmatimonadales. The most remarkable differences in eukaryotic microorganism abundances could be observed in several distinct groups of Ciliophora (ciliates) and Chlorophytes (green algae). Prediction of community functions from taxonomic abundances revealed differences between spring and summer, and – to a lesser extent – also between polymer types and mineral surfaces. Our results show that different microplastic particles were colonized by different biofilm communities. These findings may be used for advanced experimental designs to investigate the role of microorganisms on the fate of microplastic particles in freshwater ecosystems.

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 3399
Katrina Eschweiler ◽  
Jonathan B. Clayton ◽  
Anneke Moresco ◽  
Erin A. McKenney ◽  
Larry J. Minter ◽  

The last few decades have seen an outpouring of gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome studies across diverse host species. Studies have ranged from assessments of GI microbial richness and diversity to classification of novel microbial lineages. Assessments of the “normal” state of the GI microbiome composition across multiple host species has gained increasing importance for distinguishing healthy versus diseased states. This study aimed to determine baselines and trends over time to establish “typical” patterns of GI microbial richness and diversity, as well as inter-individual variation, in three populations of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) under human care at three zoological institutions in North America. Fecal samples were collected from 19 western lowland gorillas every two weeks for seven months (n = 248). Host identity and host institution significantly affected GI microbiome community composition (p < 0.05), although host identity had the most consistent and significant effect on richness (p = 0.03) and Shannon diversity (p = 0.004) across institutions. Significant changes in microbial abundance over time were observed only at Denver Zoo (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that individuality contributes to most of the observed GI microbiome variation in the study populations. Our results also showed no significant changes in any individual’s microbial richness or Shannon diversity during the 7-month study period. While some microbial taxa (Prevotella, Prevotellaceae and Ruminococcaceae) were detected in all gorillas at varying levels, determining individual baselines for microbial composition comparisons may be the most useful diagnostic tool for optimizing non-human primate health under human care.

Fermentation ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 286
Yi Xiong ◽  
Chunze Guo ◽  
Lin Wang ◽  
Fei Chen ◽  
Xianwen Dong ◽  

Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera) is widely ensiled to feed sheep in southwestern China, as unconventional woody forage. Feeding lambs with paper mulberry silage (PMS) may improve certain feeding characteristics, thereby affecting the growth performance and meat quality. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of four diets of PMS on growth performance, rumen microbial composition, and muscle fatty acids profile in Hu lambs. The results showed that 30% and 40% PMS increased the dry matter intake and average daily gain of Hu lambs compared to the control group. PMS30 and PMS40 increased the content of C24:1, and PMS40 increased the content of C20:5n-3. The content of microbial protein (MCP) was higher in PMS40 than in others, but PMS30 and PMS40 reduced the total volatile fatty acid in rumen. PMS30 significantly increased the ratio of acetic acid to propionic acid. The abundance of ruminal Christensenellaceae_R-7_group and norank_f_Eubacterium_coprostanoligenes_group was significantly higher in PMS30 and PMS40 groups. Moreover, Christensenellaceae_R-7_group had a significant positive correlation with n3-polyunsaturated fatty acid. PMS40 might lead to a relatively high content of unsaturated fatty acids in longissimus dorsi muscle by increasing the relative abundance of Christensenellaceae_R-7_group in rumen.

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