major public health issue
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Md Iftekhar Salam ◽  
Abdus Salam

Abstract not availableInternational Journal of Human and Health Sciences Vol. 06 No. 01 January’22 Page: 3-5

2022 ◽  
pp. 187-207
Tânia Moço Morgado ◽  
Tiago Oliveira Costa ◽  
Odete Lomba de Araújo ◽  
Rosa Gomes da Silva

Mental health literacy (MHL) was originally defined as knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders which aid their recognition, management, and prevention. More recently, this concept has evolved to a more positive perspective by adding the focus on knowledge and abilities necessary to benefit mental health. Higher levels of MHL have a positive influence on several domains. Therefore, MHL programs should be provided in different contexts across the lifespan. Mental health is now a major public health issue in modern societies, and higher levels of MHL can prevent and mitigate the impact of mental illness. For clinical practice, the authors recommend the use of the assertiveness, clear language, and positivity (ACP) model in MHL programs and strategies that encourage the implementation of these and other programs in different settings, as well as more research.

2021 ◽  
pp. 192536212110653
Serenella Serinelli ◽  
Luigi Bonaccorso ◽  
Carmelo Furnari ◽  
Lorenzo Gitto

Suicide is a major public health issue and the risk of attempting and committing suicide increases with age. We present the case of an elderly couple who decided to commit suicide together by self-poisoning using levamisole-adulterated cocaine. The choice of committing a double suicide, the method selected (self-poisoning), the drug self-administered (cocaine), and the route of administration (ingestion) are events rarely encountered in the forensic pathology practice, especially not in combination. In this article, we will review the literature regarding the frequency and features of these methods of suicide. An overview of the effects and mechanism of action of levamisole is also provided, highlighting the importance of including this substance and its metabolites in the routine toxicological analyses for cocaine deaths.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Kayla A. Mansour ◽  
Christopher J. Greenwood ◽  
Ebony J. Biden ◽  
Lauren M. Francis ◽  
Craig A. Olsson ◽  

Loneliness is a major public health issue, with its prevalence rising during COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns and mandated “social distancing” practices. A 2020 global study (n = 46,054) found that, in comparison to women, men experienced the greatest levels of loneliness. Although research on predictors of loneliness during COVID-19 is increasing, little is known about the characteristics of men who may be particularly vulnerable. Studies using prospective data are needed to inform preventative measures to support men at risk of loneliness. The current study draws on rare longitudinal data from an Australian cohort of men in young to mid-adulthood (n = 283; aged M = 34.6, SD = 1.38 years) to examine 25 pre-pandemic psychosocial predictors of loneliness during COVID-19 social restrictions (March–September 2020). Adjusted linear regressions identified 22 pre-pandemic predictors of loneliness across a range of trait-based, relational, career/home and mental health variables. Given the extensive set of predictors, we then conducted penalized regression models (LASSO), a machine learning approach, allowing us to identify the best fitting multivariable set of predictors of loneliness during the pandemic. In these models, men's sense of pre-pandemic environmental mastery emerged as the strongest predictor of loneliness. Depression, neuroticism and social support also remained key predictors of pandemic loneliness (R2 = 26, including covariates). Our findings suggest that men's loneliness can be detected prospectively and under varying levels of social restriction, presenting possible targets for prevention efforts for those most vulnerable.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (12) ◽  
pp. 1262
Marine Duplantier ◽  
Elodie Lohou ◽  
Pascal Sonnet

The emergence and the dissemination of multidrug-resistant bacteria constitute a major public health issue. Among incriminated Gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been designated by the WHO as a critical priority threat. During the infection process, this pathogen secretes various virulence factors in order to adhere and colonize host tissues. Furthermore, P. aeruginosa has the capacity to establish biofilms that reinforce its virulence and intrinsic drug resistance. The regulation of biofilm and virulence factor production of this micro-organism is controlled by a specific bacterial communication system named Quorum Sensing (QS). The development of anti-virulence agents targeting QS that could attenuate P. aeruginosa pathogenicity without affecting its growth seems to be a promising new therapeutic strategy. This could prevent the selective pressure put on bacteria by the conventional antibiotics that cause their death and promote resistant strain survival. This review describes the QS-controlled pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa and its different specific QS molecular pathways, as well as the recent advances in the development of innovative QS-quenching anti-virulence agents to fight anti-bioresistance.

2021 ◽  
pp. 2889-2906
Tyagita Hartady ◽  
Mas Rizky A. A. Syamsunarno ◽  
Bambang Pontjo Priosoeryanto ◽  
S. Jasni ◽  
Roostita L. Balia

Poultry meat consumption is increasing worldwide but the overuse of antimicrobials for prevention and treatment of diseases has increased antimicrobial resistance (AMR), triggering a major public health issue. To restrict AMR emergence, the government supports the optimization of natural products that are safe and easy to obtain with minimal side effects on poultry, humans, and the environment. Various studies have explored the potential of herbs in animal health for their antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, and body weight gain properties. Therefore, this study reviewed plants with potential application in avian species by summarizing and discussing the mechanisms and prophylactic/therapeutic potential of these compounds and their plant origin extracts.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 134-137
Khushboo Singh Sisodiya ◽  
Bharti Prakash

Gestational diabetes mellitus is a disorder of glucose intolerance which occurs for the first time during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes mellitus is major public health issue which is increasing day by day all over the world. It leads to the risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes and possibly adult cardiovascular disease in infant and increases rate of caesarean delivery and prenatal injury. This preliminary study is done to analyse the knowledge and awareness about GDM in antenatal women. Data were collected from government and private hospitals like Amrit Kaur Hospital, Shree maternity Child Hospital, Jain fertility Child ICU Hospital etc. Questionnaires were given to pregnant women who Visited hospitals for antenatal check up. A total no of 250 respondents were included in this study. Of total number of women only 52% were known to GDM. So the knowledge about GDM is average in women and most of the women gain this knowledge from their own experience. The study reveals that health program and camps should be organized to increase the knowledge about GDM. Key words: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Awareness, cardiovascular disease.

2021 ◽  
Aaron J Oakley

Contamination of drinking water with toxic inorganic arsenic is a major public health issue. The mechanisms of enzymes and transporters in arsenic elimination are therefore of interest. The human omega-class glutathione transferases have been previously shown to possess monomethylarsonate (V) reductase activity. To further understanding of this activity, molecular dynamics of human GSTO1-1 bound to glutathione with a monomethylarsonate isostere were simulated to reveal putative monomethylarsonate binding sites on the enzyme. The major binding site is in the active site, adjacent to the glutathione binding site. Based on this and previously reported biochemical data, a reaction mechanism for this enzyme is proposed. Further insights were gained from comparison of the human omega-class GSTs to homologs from a range of animals.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Jon Petter A. Stoor ◽  
Heidi A. Eriksen ◽  
Anne C. Silviken

Abstract Background Suicide is a major public health issue among Indigenous Sámi in Nordic countries, and efforts to prevent suicide in the Sámi context are increasing. However, there is no literature on suicide prevention initiatives among Sámi. The aim of the study was to map suicide prevention initiatives targeting Sámi in Norway, Sweden, and Finland during 2005–2019. Method Initiatives were identified and described through utilizing networks among stakeholders in the field of suicide prevention among Sámi, acquiring documentation of initiatives and utilizing the authors first-hand experiences. The described initiatives were analyzed inspired by the “What is the problem represented to be?” (WPR)-approach. Results Seventeen initiatives targeting Sámi were identified during 2005–2019, including nine in Sweden, five in Norway, one in Finland and two international initiatives. Analysis with the WPR-approach yielded 40 problematizations regarding how to prevent suicide among Sámi, pertaining to shortcomings on individual (5), relational (15), community/cultural (3), societal (14) and health systems levels (3). All initiatives were adapted to the Sámi context, varying from tailor-made, culture-specific approaches to targeting Sámi with universal approaches. The most common approaches were the gatekeeper and mental health literacy training programs. The initiatives generally lacked thorough evaluation components. Conclusion We argue that the dominant rationales for suicide prevention were addressing shortcomings on individual and relational levels, and raising awareness in the general public. This threatens obscuring other, critical, approaches, such as broadening perspectives in prevention planning, improving health systems for Sámi, and promoting cultural empowerment among Sámi. Nevertheless, the study confirms considerable efforts have been invested into suicide prevention among Sámi during the last 15 years, and future initiatives might include a broader set of prevention rationales. To improve evaluation and identify the most promising practices, increased support regarding development of plans and implementation of evaluation components is needed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (11) ◽  
pp. 2263
Elodie Calvez ◽  
Phaithong Bounmany ◽  
Charlotte Balière ◽  
Somphavanh Somlor ◽  
Souksakhone Viengphouthong ◽  

Since its first detection in 1979, dengue fever has been considered a major public health issue in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR). Dengue virus (DENV) serotype 1 was the cause of an epidemic in 2010–2011. Between 2012 and 2020, major outbreaks due successively to DENV-3, DENV-4 and recently DENV-2 have been recorded. However, DENV-1 still co-circulated in the country over this period. Here, we summarize epidemiological and molecular data of DENV-1 between 2016 and 2020 in the Lao PDR. Our data highlight the continuous circulation of DENV-1 in the country at levels ranging from 16% to 22% among serotyping tests. In addition, the phylogenetic analysis has revealed the circulation of DENV-1 genotype I at least since 2008 with a co-circulation of different clusters. Sequence data support independent DENV-1 introductions in the Lao PDR correlated with an active circulation of this serotype at the regional level in Southeast Asia. The maintenance of DENV-1 circulation over the last ten years supports a low level of immunity against this serotype within the Lao population. Thereby, the risk of a DENV-1 epidemic cannot be ruled out in the future, and this emphasizes the importance of maintaining an integrated surveillance approach to prevent major outbreaks.

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