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Minerals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 1104
Author(s):  
Yazhou Hu ◽  
Lars E. Holmer ◽  
Yue Liang ◽  
Xiaolin Duan ◽  
Zhifei Zhang

Small Shelly Fossils (SSFs) from the Cambrian are widely distributed and well known across different paleocontinents of the world. However, middle Cambrian SSFs from North China Platform have only rarely been documented until now. In this paper, we presented the first report on SSFs from bioclastic and oolitic limestones of the Zhangxia and Hsuzhuang formations of Henan province, North China. The carbonate-hosted fauna includes brachiopods (Micromitra sp., M. modesta, Eoobolus sp., and Schizopholis sp.), helcionellids (Oelandiella accordionata and O. aliciae), hyolithids, Hyolithellus sp., Chancelloria eros, sponge spicules, echinoderm ossicles, and chancelloriid sclerites. In terms of preservation, the brachiopod shell valves of M. modesta appeared to be homogeneous, consisting of tightly packed phosphate grains. Eoobolus sp. is composed of primary layer and secondary baculate, both of which consist of tightly compacted phosphate grains. Schizopholis sp. has multiple-lamellar phosphatized microstructures that distinctly differ from the other brachiopods recovered from the Longwanggou section. A similar multiple-lamellar microstructure was also revealed in conchs of Hyolithellus, with tightly compacted phosphate grains. The argillaceous shell of Oelandiella accordionata and O. aliciae, and the calcitic inner molds of hyolith did not preserve any shell structure. The helcionellids O. accordionata and O. aliciae and the brachiopod M. modesta were reported for the first time from North China. The fauna is most similar to the middle Cambrian faunas of South Australia, in the brachiopod and mollusk components; it is also similar in composition of brachiopods and mollusks to coeval faunas from South China. The new fauna of SSFs in the Yiyang Longwanggou Section indicated that the Hsuzhuang and Zhangxia formations are late Drumian to middle Guzhuangian in age, most likely correlating with the Murrawong Creek Formation of South Australia.


2020 ◽  
Vol 105 (9) ◽  
pp. 1412-1423
Author(s):  
Dongjie Tang ◽  
Jianbai Ma ◽  
Xiaoying Shi ◽  
Maxwell Lechte ◽  
Xiqiang Zhou

Abstract Marine red beds (MRBs) are common in sedimentary records, but their genesis and environmental implications remain controversial. Genetic models proposed for MRBs variably invoke diagenetic or primary enrichments of iron, with vastly different implications for the redox state of the contemporaneous water column. The Xiamaling Formation (ca. 1.4 Ga) in the North China Platform hosts MRBs that offer insights into the iron cycling and redox conditions during the Mesoproterozoic Era. In the Xiamaling MRBs, well-preserved, nanometer-sized flaky hematite particles are randomly dispersed in the clay (illite) matrix, within the pressure shadow of rigid detrital grains. The presence of hematite flake aggregates with multiple face-to-edge (“cardhouse”) contacts indicates that the hematite particles were deposited as loosely bound, primary iron oxyhydroxide flocs. No greenalite or other ferrous iron precursor minerals have been identified in the MRBs. Early diagenetic ankerite concretions hosted in the MRBs show non-zero I/(Ca+Mg) values and positive Ce anomalies (>1.3), suggesting active redox cycling of iodine and manganese and therefore the presence of molecular oxygen in the porewater and likely in the water column during their formation. These observations support the hypothesis that iron oxyhydroxide precipitation occurred in moderately oxygenated marine waters above storm wave base (likely <100 m). Continentally sourced iron reactivated through microbial dissimilatory iron reduction, and distal hydrothermal fluids may have supplied Fe(II) for the iron oxyhydroxide precipitation. The accumulation of the Xiamaling MRBs may imply a slight increase of seawater oxygenation and the existence of long-lasting adjacent ferruginous water mass.


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