cuffless blood pressure
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2022 ◽  
Ali Bahari Malayeri ◽  
Mohammad Bagher Khodabakhshi

Abstract Due to the importance of continuous monitoring of blood pressure (BP) in controlling hypertension, the topic of cuffless blood pressure (BP) estimation has been widely studied in recent years. A most important approach is to explore the nonlinear mapping between the recorded peripheral signals and the BP values which is usually conducted by deep neural networks. Because of the sequence-based pseudo periodic nature of peripheral signals such as photoplethysmogram (PPG), a proper estimation model needed to be equipped with the 1-dimensional (1-D) and recurrent layers. This, in turn, limits the usage of 2-dimensional (2-D) layers adopted in convolutional neural networks (CNN) for embedding spatial information in the model. In this study, considering the advantage of chaotic approaches, the recurrence characterization of peripheral signals was taken into account by a visual 2-D representation of PPG in phase space through fuzzy recurrence plot (FRP). FRP not only provides a beneficial framework for capturing the spatial properties of input signals but also creates a reliable approach for embedding the pseudo periodic properties to the neural models without using recurrent layers. Moreover, this study proposes a novel deep neural network architecture that combines the morphological features extracted simultaneously from two upgraded 1-D and 2-D CNNs capturing the temporal and spatial dependencies of PPGs in systolic and diastolic BP estimation. The model has been fed with the 1-D PPG sequences and the corresponding 2-D FRPs from two separate routes. The performance of the proposed framework was examined on the well-known public dataset, namely, Multi-Parameter Intelligent in Intensive Care II. Our scheme is analyzed and compared with the literature in terms of the requirements of the standards set by the British Hypertension Society (BHS) and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI). The proposed model met the AAMI requirements, and it achieved a grade of A as stated by the BHS standard. In addition, its mean absolute errors (MAE) and standard deviation for both systolic and diastolic blood pressure estimations were considerably low, 3.05±5.26 mmHg and 1.58±2.6 mmHg, in turn.

Sudipta Ghosh ◽  
Bhabani Prasad Chattopadhyay ◽  
Ram Mohan Roy ◽  
Jayanta Mukherjee ◽  
Manjunatha Mahadevappa

Hypertension ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 78 (5) ◽  
pp. 1161-1167
Ramakrishna Mukkamala ◽  
Mohammad Yavarimanesh ◽  
Keerthana Natarajan ◽  
Jin-Oh Hahn ◽  
Konstantinos G. Kyriakoulis ◽  

Several novel cuffless wearable devices and smartphone applications claiming that they can measure blood pressure (BP) are appearing on the market. These technologies are very attractive and promising, with increasing interest among health care professionals for their potential use. Moreover, they are becoming popular among patients with hypertension and healthy people. However, at the present time, there are serious issues about BP measurement accuracy of cuffless devices and the 2021 European Society of Hypertension Guidelines on BP measurement do not recommend them for clinical use. Cuffless devices have special validation issues, which have been recently recognized. It is important to note that the 2018 Universal Standard for the validation of automated BP measurement devices developed by the American Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, the European Society of Hypertension, and the International Organization for Standardization is inappropriate for the validation of cuffless devices. Unfortunately, there is an increasing number of publications presenting data on the accuracy of novel cuffless BP measurement devices, with inadequate methodology and potentially misleading conclusions. The objective of this review is to facilitate understanding of the capabilities and limitations of emerging cuffless BP measurement devices. First, the potential and the types of these devices are described. Then, the unique challenges in evaluating the BP measurement accuracy of cuffless devices are explained. Studies from the literature and computer simulations are employed to illustrate these challenges. Finally, proposals are given on how to evaluate cuffless devices including presenting and interpreting relevant study results.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2071 (1) ◽  
pp. 012030
M S Norsuriati ◽  
M S Norehan Mohd Sobri ◽  
H Zaidatul Hafiszah ◽  
A Mohamad Nazib ◽  
W Z Wan Suhaimizan ◽  

Abstract Hypertension, commonly known as high blood pressure, is a major concern for people globally and in Malaysia. The hypertensive patient must commute to the hospital visiting their physician regularly for blood pressure (BP) monitoring using a cuff-based device. The patient may feel uncomfortable and pain when the device inflates the cuff and tightens around the arm for a BP measurement. Hence, to overcome this problem, this paper proposed a cuffless BP measurement using pulse transit time (PTT). In this method, a delay time between the peak of Photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals at the fingertip and the earlobe were correlated with BP. These signals were transferred to a computer via Arduino uno microcontroller and analyzed by the MATLAB R2019a software. A preliminary result shows that the developed system is able to record PTT and display the estimated BP value on the ThingSpeak webpage and ThingView apps. With the IoT platform, the cuffless BP can be monitor remotely, and the results can be store on the cloud healthcare system for hypertensive management.

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