High Protein Content
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V. V. Liubych ◽  

Purpose. To investigate the formation of cereal properties of spelt wheat grain depending on variety and line. Methods. Laboratory, mathematical and statistical, physicochemical. Results. As a result of studies it is found that technological properties of grain significantly vary depending on spelt variety and weather conditions. The protein content in spelt grain ranges from 11.0 to 21.3 % depending on the variety. A very high protein content in spelt grain (over 18.0 %) is in variety Zoria of Ukraine; rather high protein content (16.0–17.9 %) is in varieties Schwabenkorn (17.6 %), NSS 6/01 (17.3 %), Avstraliiska 1 (16.7 %) and LPP 3218 (16.7 %); low protein content (12.0–13.9 %) is in varieties LPP 3435 (13.1 %)and LPP 1224 (13.0 %); very low protein content is in varieties Shvedska 1 (11.0 %) and LPP 3117 (11.5 %); the rest of varieties has this indicator at the level of average – 14.0–15.9 %. Vitreous consistency of the endosperm has corn of varieties Zoria of Ukraine and Avstraliiska 1, semi vitreous consistency has grain of varieties NSS 6/01, Schwabenkorn, Frankenkorn and lines LPP 3218, LPP 3132, LPP 1305, LPP 1197, LPP 3124, LPP 3435, semi floury consistency has Shvedska 1 and LPP 3117. Culinary assessment of rolled spelt grains varies significantly depending on the variety. Total culinary assessment of rolled grain porridge of the spelt ranges from 6,8 to 9,0 points. Origin of spelt variety does not affect this indicator. The highest culinary assessment (8.9–9.0 points) has porridge obtained from grain of the variety Zoria of Ukraine and LPP 3132 line which makes it possible to use its grain to obtain cereal products. The lowest assessment of the porridge has variety Shvedska 1 and lines LPP 1224, LPP 3117 – 6.8–7.7 points. The other varieties have a culinary assessment of the porridge at a level of 8.1–8.8 points. For spelt grain indicator of protein content and grain vitreuesness can be used to evaluate the culinary properties of cereals. Conclusions. As a result of the conducted researches, it is established that Zoria Ukrainy, Schwabenkorn, NSS 6/01, Australian 1 varieties and LPP 3218 line are characterized by high protein content. Hard consistency of endosperm has the grain of Australian 1 and Zoria Ukrainy varieties in which the grain hardness is 73 and 84%, respectively. The origin of spelt wheat variety does not affect the color of cooked porridge. The general culinary evaluation of rolled spelt wheat porridge ranges from 6.8 to 9.0 points. Zoria Ukrainy spelt grain has the highest culinary evaluation which makes it possible to use it to produce cereals. To evaluate the culinary properties of spelt cereals, grain protein content and its hardness can be used.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (2) ◽  
pp. 235-245
Agus Dana Permana ◽  
Din Dzakamala Fafi Rohmatillah1 ◽  
Ramadhani Eka Putra ◽  
Ucu Julita ◽  
Agus Susanto

Black Soldier Fly Larvae (BSFL), Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) are widely used as bioconverter agents for various organics waste, and BSF pupae are often used as fodder for poultry and fish, because the BSF pupae have a high protein content. This study focused on applying BSFL as a bioconversion agent of the fermented barley waste to convert it to larvae biomass. Prior to application, barley waste was fermented either using effective microorganisms-4 (EM4), leachate, and water for seven days. The fermented barley waste was applied as feeding material for BSFL at the rate of 100 mg/larvae/days. As control commercial chicken fed (CF) was applied as feeding material at a similar feeding rate. During this study, waste reduction index (WRI), and efficiency of digested feed (ECD) were calculated, and the protein content in the BSF prepupae was analyzed. The results of this study showed that BSFL fed with CF produces the shortest development time (27 days), and high consumption rate. BSFL fed with barley waste fermented with EM4 (BE) and Leachate (BL) produces a larval period of 31 and 30 days respectively, and statistically those were not significantly different from control. This study showed that treatments of BE and BL, produced a very high larval survival rates, 98.67% and 97.00% respectively, and those two treatments were not statistically different from the control (96.67%). Although the control treatment resulted in a higher WRI compared to the other treatments, but the ECD of BE and BL treatments were higher than the ECD of the control. From this study, it can be concluded that BSFL has a good ability to convert fermented barley waste as well as controls, and the prepupae has a high protein content (42%), so BSFL fed with fermented barley waste has the opportunity to be used as a fed for poultry and fish.

2021 ◽  
pp. 407
Wibawa Prasetya ◽  
Yanto Yanto ◽  
Christine Natalia ◽  
Agustinus Silalahi

This time, rubbish is a very serious environmental problem for the people of Kampung Baru, Sampora Village, Tangerang. The increase in population results in an increase in the amount of rubbish. According to data, rubbish production in Tangerang in 2020 reached 22,873 tons, while the rubbish handled was only around 937 tons (4%).This problem needs to be solved immediately. Rubbish generated by households can be in the form of organic or inorganic. If rubbish is not managed properly, it can damage the surrounding environment.The method   used to solve the problem of organic rubbish can be done through bioconversion of organic rubbish into maggot.Organic rubbish is often considered safe because it is easily biodegradable, even though organic rubbish has the potential to damage the environment, This method has advantages, because during the bioconversion process it does not cause unpleasant odors Bioconversion of organic rubbish can be a rubbish management solution that can be offered to the residents of Kampung Baru..Every 1 kg of maggot requires 2 kg of organic rubbish/hour as food. The speed of maggot using organic rubbish  as feed can be an alternative to reduce the amount of organic rubbish.Maggot that is ready to be harvested has a very high protein content, so it can be used as feed for catfish or  poultry.Catfish fed with maggot as feed, at the age of 100 days, each kilogram contained 6 catfish, while catfish fed only with pellets, at the age of 100 days, each kg contained 7-8 catfish. Thus maggot can increase the weight of catfish significantly.In addition, maggot can reduce pellet consumption by up to 75 percent, so it can help catfish farmers in saving feed costs.Saat ini sampah merupakan masalah lingkungan yang sangat serius bagi masyarakat Kampung Baru, Desa Sampora, Tangerang. Pertambahan jumlah penduduk mengakibatkan pertambahan jumlah sampah. Menurut data produksi sampah di Tangerang pada tahun 2020 mencapai 22.873 ton, sedangkan sampah yang tertangani hanya sekitar 937 ton (4%). Permasalahan ini perlu segera dicari solusinya. Sampah  yang dihasilkan oleh rumah tangga dapat berupa sampah organik maupun anorganik. Jika sampah tidak dikelola dengan baik, maka sampah dapat merusak lingkungan sekitar. Sampah organik sering dianggap aman karena mudah terurai, padahal  sampah organik memiliki potensi untuk merusak lingkungan.Metode yang digunakan untuk memecahkan permasalahan sampah organik dapat dilakukan melalui biokonversi sampah organik menjadi maggot. Metode ini mempunyai kelebihan, karena selama proses biokonversi tidak menimbulkan bauyang tidak sedap. Biokonversi sampah organik dapat menjadi  solusi pengolahan sampah yang dapat  ditawarkan kepada penduduk Kampung Baru, Setiap 1 kg maggot membutuhkan 2 kg sampah organik/jam sebagai makanannya. Kecepatan maggot menggunakan sampah organik sebagai pakan, dapat menjadi alternatif untuk mereduksi jumlah sampah organik.  Maggot yang siap dipanen mempunyai kandungan protein yang sangat tinggi, sehingga dapat digunakan sebagai pakan lele atau ternak unggas lainnya. Lele  yang diberi maggot sebagai pakan, pada usia 100 hari, setiap kilogram berisi 6 ekor lele, sedangkan lele yang hanya diberi pakan pelet, pada usia 100 hari,setiap kg berisi 7-8 ekor lele. Dengan demikian maggot dapat meningkatkan berat lele secara signifikan. Selain itu maggot dapat mengurangi konsumsi pelet sampai 75 persen, sehingga dapat membantu peternak lele dalam menghemat biaya pakan.

2021 ◽  
Vol 901 (1) ◽  
pp. 012011
P A Ageeva ◽  
N A Potchutina ◽  
M V Matyukhina ◽  
O M Gromova

Abstract Narrow-leaved lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.) is a valuable leguminous fodder crop adapted to a wide range of soil and climatic conditions. Modern fodder varieties of narrow-leaved lupine have a low content of alkaloids in the grain of 0.02-0.10%, a high protein content of 32.0-38.0% and a number of other nutrients valuable for fodder production. In the collection nursery 2018-2020 Under the conditions of a changed climate, forage varieties and specimens of two morphological groups were studied: branched with different degrees of blocking of lateral branching and spike-like. The results of the structural analysis of the gene pool for the main elements of productivity and its morphobiological features are presented. According to the productivity of plants in the indeterminate group, the varieties USN 53-236, Narrow-leaved 53-02 and Hybrid 1215 (7.7-6.1 g / plant) were distinguished; by weight 1000 pcs. seeds - varieties Belorozovy 144 and Crystal (136.4-120 g); by the number of seeds in a bean - Belorozovy 144 and Narrow-leaved 53-02 and the Belarusian cultivar Alliance (4.1-4.2 pcs.). In the group of spike-like forms, the cultivar Epigonal 1215 (3.2 g / plant) was distinguished by grain productivity, by the weight of 1000 seeds - the Belarusian cultivar Talent (102.2 g). As a result of the assessment of the collection material in terms of the height and weight of plants, a variety meter was identified that exceeded the control, variety Vityaz, by 15.0-27.7 cm: Belorozovy 144, SN 78-07 and Hybrid 1215. The growing season of the studied numbers varies in a wide range of 80- 101 days. The group of spike-shaped numbers is characterized by ultra-early maturity (71-75) days.

M. Muthulakshmi ◽  
R. Premavathi

Pulses are important in Indian agriculture because of their high protein content (17–25%) compared to grains (6–10%), as well as their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen and to enhance soil fertility. Black gram (Vigna mungo L.), also known as Urd bean, Urid, or mash, is a major pulse crop. The study on adoption of Black gram VBN 8 was conducted in Pudukkottai district of Tamil Nadu. Out of 13 blocks in the district, three blocks were selected based on the area under black gram VBN 8 cultivation. The data collected were analysed and presented using descriptive statistics. The results of the study revealed that three fifth (60.80%) of the respondents belonged to medium level of adoption category, followed by 20.00 per cent and 19.20 per cent of the respondents in low and high level of adoption categories.

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 2550
Fatma Boukid ◽  
Josep Comaposada ◽  
Albert Ribas-Agustí ◽  
Massimo Castellari

The aim of this paper was to develop high-protein vegetable creams through the incorporation of microalgae. Single-cell ingredients from Arthrospiraplatensis (spirulina), Chlorella vulgaris, Tetraselmis chui, and Nannochloropsis oceanica were incorporated at two levels of addition (1.5% and 3.0%) to a standard vegetable cream (STD). Effects of incorporation were assessed in terms of physicochemical and rheological attributes as well as nutritional labeling facts. Creams formulated with 3% A. platensis, N. oceanica, or T. chui showed strong color differences (6 < ΔE < 12) compared to STD; creams formulated with 1.5% A. platensis, T. chui, or N. oceanica showed perceptible differences (3 < ΔE < 6); and those made with C. vulgaris at 1.5 and 3% exhibited small differences (ΔE < 2). Moisture content, water activity, pH, syneresis, and °Brix did not show significant changes. Adding microalgae increased Bostwick consistency and decreased the consistency coefficient (K) except in creams made with A. platensis, which showed comparable values to STD. Principal component analysis indicated that creams made with 1.5% C. vulgaris were the most similar to STD considering all evaluated parameters. Estimation of the nutritional labeling facts showed that the four formulations could be labeled as having “high protein content” following the present EU legislation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jingjing Li ◽  
Yujia Chu ◽  
Wenwen Yao ◽  
Hui Wu ◽  
Jiang Feng

In mammals, lactation is considered the most energetically costly phase for females. To meet nutritional and energy demands, lactating females usually change feeding patterns by eating food that is higher in protein and calories. Their gut microbes respond accordingly to help adapt to the changes in diet. In this study, we examined differences in diet and gut microbial composition between lactating and non-lactating Asian particolored bats (Vespertilio sinensis) using COI and 16S amplicon sequencing. When compared with non-lactating bats, we found that the diversity and composition of lactating bats’ diets differed; the proportion of Diptera increased and Coleoptera and Orthoptera decreased significantly. This could be attributed to the easy availability and high protein content of Diptera. Comparative analysis of the gut microbiota of lactating and non-lactating females showed that although the diversity of gut microbiota did not change, the relative abundance of specific gut microbiota associated with a particular diet did change. For example, when the consumption of Coleoptera decreased in lactating bats, the relative abundance of Lactobacillaceae was also reduced. Lactobacillaceae are thought to be involved in the digestion of Coleopteran exoskeletons. This study suggests that during lactation, Asian particolored bats eat a diet that yields higher levels of protein, and at the same time, the abundance of specific gut microbes change to help their hosts adapt to these changes in diet.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (2) ◽  
pp. 108
D Yadi Heryadi ◽  
Ristina Siti Sundari ◽  
Rini Agustini ◽  
Andang Hidayat

The agribusiness of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) is getting interested due to an increase in demand. It has almost complete nutrients, high protein content that can substitute animal protein for vegetarians. The growth medium for oyster mushrooms commonly uses sawdust. The cocopeat waste medium is an innovation. The research descriptively compares production cost, yield, revenue, income, and feasibility throughout both mediums. Findings that the total cost of sawdust medium was higher 750,000IDR than cocopeat waste. In terms of income, sawdust medium earned 140.72%, while cocopeat waste earned 133.29%. The feasibility of sawdust waste was 2.41 while cocopeat waste was 2.33 as well. Otherwise, the cocopeat waste medium was higher 99.21IDR than sawdust waste in cost/kg yield. Net income using cocopeat waste medium was 2,739,694.50IDR, and cocopeat waste was 2,511,769.50IDR on average. Both cocopeat waste and sawdust waste medium are very feasible to be an agribusiness. The consideration is that the availability surrounds the production site, and cocopeat waste is cheaper than sawdust waste. Agribisnis jamur tiram (Pleurotus ostreatus) semakin diminati oleh karena permintaan terus meningkat. Kandungan gizinya lengkap dengan protein yang tinggi. Bahkan bagi vegetarian menjadi pengganti protein hewani. Media pertumbuhan jamur tiram biasanya menggunakan limbah serbuk gergaji. Media limbah serbuk sabut kelapa merupakan inovasi baru. Penelitian ini ingin mengetahui biaya-biaya hingga kelayakan usaha agribisnis jamur tiram menggunakan media limbah serbuk sabut kelapa dan yang biasa yaitu limbah serbuk gergaji Ternyata, Biaya total setahun menggunakan media limbah serbuk sabut kelapa lebih hemat Rp750.000 dibandingkan dengan media limbah serbuk gergaji. Biaya per kilogramnya sedikit lebih mahal Rp99.21 tetapi hasil panen lebih rendah dari limbah serbuk gergaji. Jamur tiram media limbah serbuk sabut kelapa memberikan keuntungan 133.29% dan media limbah serbuk gergaji 140.72%. Jamur tiram media limbah serbuk gergaji memberikan keuntungan bersih/bulan rata-rata Rp2,739,694.50, sedangkan media limbah serbuk sabut kelapa rata-rata Rp2,511,769.50.Kedua media untuk jamur tiram sangat layak diusahakan dengan R/C ratio 2.33 dan 2.41. Pengusaha bisa mempertimbangkan media limbah serbuk sabut kelapa atau limbah serbuk gergaji tergantung ketersediaan di sekitar lokasi dengan informasi harga limbah sabut kelapa lebih murah daripada limbah serbuk gergaji.

Processes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (9) ◽  
pp. 1682
Siqi Zhang ◽  
Ying Wang ◽  
Jinghui Song ◽  
Chenjing Sheng ◽  
Zezhou Shang ◽  

Synergistic effects among different chemical components under the anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD) process played an important role in improving its performance, which might be affected by the digesting temperature. The results showed that the actual methane production (AMP) and gasification rate (GR) of 50% lipid content were the highest, and the carbohydrate and protein content should be adjusted according to the temperature. Under mesophilic conditions, the M1 reactor with high protein content (carbohydrate–lipid–protein ratio, CLP = 20:50:30) had the highest AMP of 552.02 mL/g VS and GR of 74.72%. However, as the temperature increased, the high protein content produced high levels of ammonia nitrogen (AN) and free ammonia (FA), which formed a certain degree of ammonia inhibition, resulting in lower AMP and GR. Under thermophilic conditions, the low protein T2 reactor (CLP = 40:50:10) had the highest AMP and GR at 485.45 mL/g VS and 67.18%. In addition, the M1 and T2 reactors had the highest microbial diversity, which promoted substrate degradation and methane production. In the M1 reactor, acetoclastic metabolism is the main methanogenic pathway, while in the T2 reactor changes to hydrogenotrophic metabolism. Therefore, understanding the synergistic effect between temperature and chemical compositions was an effective way to improve the AcoD effect.

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