Ultrasound is a noninvasive technique that provides real-time imaging with excellent resolution, and several studies demonstrated the potential of ultrasound in acute ischemic stroke monitoring. However, only a few studies were performed using animal models, of which many showed ultrasound to be a safe and effective tool also in therapeutic applications. The full potential of ultrasound application in experimental stroke is yet to be explored to further determine the limitations of this technique and to ensure the accuracy of translational research. This review covers the current status of ultrasound applied to monitoring and treatment in experimental animal models of stroke and examines the safety, limitations, and future perspectives.
Adhesions are fibrous bands of scar tissue that form following peritoneal injury, commonly intra-abdominal surgery, and are associated with serious morbidity such as small bowel obstruction and pain. Surgical meshes used for incisional hernia repair are associated with increased incidence and severity of adhesions. There is limited consensus on which mesh may induce the least adhesions following incisional hernia repair, and most previous data has come from experimental animal models. We aimed to evaluate existing primary research to investigate whether biological mesh limits adhesion formation compared to synthetic or biosynthetic mesh when used in patients for incisional hernia repair and also to assess whether there is correlation with existing animal model data.
Material and Methods
A systematic search was conducted on PubMed and EMBASE. The number of mesh-related adhesions, character of adhesions and adhesion-related complications were documented. Results were compared to previously published results from animal models.
Thirty-two studies were included, 11 of which did not document whether the adhesions were mesh related. A total of 14,161 participants underwent incisional hernia repair, 8,526 of whom were included in follow-up analysis. Overall, 9.7% developed adhesions. Biological mesh induced a high rate of dense adhesions, whereas biosynthetic mesh induced loose, filmy adhesions suggested to cause fewer complications. These findings were similar to findings from experimental animal models.
Bio-synthetic mesh was superior in causing fewer and less dense adhesions. Further analysis of mesh-induced adhesion formation on a larger scale is required to fully understand the consequences of different mesh types.
Impaired consciousness during seizures severely affects quality of life for people with epilepsy but the mechanisms are just beginning to be understood. Consciousness is thought to involve large-scale brain networks, so it is puzzling that focal seizures often impair consciousness. Recent work investigating focal temporal lobe or limbic seizures in human patients and experimental animal models suggests that impaired consciousness is caused by active inhibition of subcortical arousal mechanisms. Focal limbic seizures exhibit decreased neuronal firing in brainstem, basal forebrain, and thalamic arousal networks, and cortical arousal can be restored when subcortical arousal circuits are stimulated during seizures. These findings open the possibility of restoring arousal and consciousness therapeutically during and following seizures by thalamic neurostimulation. When seizures cannot be stopped by existing treatments, targeted subcortical stimulation may improve arousal and consciousness, leading to improved safety and better psychosocial function for people with epilepsy.
Microglia play an important role in the maintenance and neuroprotection of the central nervous system (CNS) by removing pathogens, damaged neurons, and plaques. Recent observations emphasize that the promotion and development of neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are closely related to microglial activation. In this review, we summarize the contribution of microglial activation and its associated mechanisms in NDs, such as epilepsy, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and Huntington’s disease (HD), based on recent observations. This review also briefly introduces experimental animal models of epilepsy, AD, PD, and HD. Thus, this review provides a better understanding of microglial functions in the development of NDs, suggesting that microglial targeting could be an effective therapeutic strategy for these diseases.
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) includes multiple diseases that share as common characteristic an elevated pulmonary artery pressure and right ventricular involvement. Sex differences are observed in practically all causes of PH. The most studied type is pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) which presents a gender bias regarding its prevalence, prognosis, and response to treatment. Although this disease is more frequent in women, once affected they present a better prognosis compared to men. Even if estrogens seem to be the key to understand these differences, animal models have shown contradictory results leading to the birth of the estrogen paradox. In this review we will summarize the evidence regarding sex differences in experimental animal models and, very specially, in patients suffering from PAH or PH from other etiologies.
A hallmark of Bacillus thuringiensis bacteria is the formation of one or more parasporal crystal (Cry) proteins during sporulation. The toxicity of these proteins is highly specific to insect larvae, exerting lethal effects in different insect species but not in humans or other mammals. The aim of this review is to summarize previous findings on Bacillus thuringiensis, including the characteristics of the bacterium, its subsequent contribution to biotechnology as a bioinsecticide due to the presence of Cry proteins, and its potential application as an adjuvant. In several studies, Cry proteins have been administered together with specific antigens to immunize experimental animal models. The results have shown that these proteins can enhance immunogenicity by generating an adequate immune response capable of protecting the model against an experimental infectious challenge, whereas protection is decreased when the specific antigen is administered without the Cry protein. Therefore, based on previous results and the structural homology between Cry proteins, these molecules have arisen as potential adjuvants in the development of vaccines for both animals and humans. Finally, a model of the interaction of Cry proteins with different components of the immune response is proposed.
Trypanosoma brucei is a protozoan parasite that causes human and animal African trypanosomiases (HAT and AAT). In the mammalian host, the parasite lives entirely extracellularly, in both the blood and interstitial spaces in tissues. Although most T. brucei research has focused on the biology of blood- and central nervous system (CNS)-resident parasites, a number of recent studies have highlighted parasite reservoirs in the dermis and adipose tissue, leading to a renewed interest in tissue-resident parasite populations. In light of this renewed interest, work describing tissue-resident parasites can serve as a valuable resource to inform future investigations of tissue-resident T. brucei. Here, we review this body of literature, which describes infections in humans, natural hosts, and experimental animal models, providing a wealth of information on the distribution and biology of extravascular parasites, the corresponding immune response in each tissue, and resulting host pathology. We discuss the implications of these studies and future questions in the study of extravascular T. brucei.