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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 435
Paulina S. C. Kliem ◽  
Kai Tisljar ◽  
Sira M. Baumann ◽  
Pascale Grzonka ◽  
Gian Marco De Marchis ◽  

Respiratory infections following status epilepticus (SE) are frequent, and associated with higher mortality, prolonged ICU stay, and higher rates of refractory SE. Lack of airway protection may contribute to respiratory infectious complications. This study investigates the order and frequency of physicians treating a simulated SE following a systematic Airways-Breathing-Circulation-Disability-Exposure (ABCDE) approach, identifies risk factors for non-adherence, and analyzes the compliance of an ABCDE guided approach to SE with current guidelines. We conducted a prospective single-blinded high-fidelity trial at a Swiss academic simulator training center. Physicians of different affiliations were confronted with a simulated SE. Physicians (n = 74) recognized SE and performed a median of four of the five ABCDE checks (interquartile range 3–4). Thereof, 5% performed a complete assessment. Airways were checked within the recommended timeframe in 46%, breathing in 66%, circulation in 92%, and disability in 96%. Head-to-toe (exposure) examination was performed in 15%. Airways were protected in a timely manner in 14%, oxygen supplied in 69%, and antiseizure drugs (ASDs) administered in 99%. Participants’ neurologic affiliation was associated with performance of fewer checks (regression coefficient −0.49; p = 0.015). We conclude that adherence to the ABCDE approach in a simulated SE was infrequent, but, if followed, resulted in adherence to treatment steps and more frequent protection of airways.

2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (3) ◽  
pp. e2114928118
Moaz Ahmad ◽  
Hwei Ling Ong ◽  
Hassan Saadi ◽  
Ga-Yeon Son ◽  
Zahra Shokatian ◽  

Stromal interaction molecules, STIM1 and STIM2, sense decreases in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]ER) and cluster in ER–plasma membrane (ER–PM) junctions where they recruit and activate Orai1. While STIM1 responds when [Ca2+]ER is relatively low, STIM2 displays constitutive clustering in the junctions and is suggested to regulate basal Ca2+ entry. The cellular cues that determine STIM2 clustering under basal conditions is not known. By using gene editing to fluorescently tag endogenous STIM2, we report that endogenous STIM2 is constitutively localized in mobile and immobile clusters. The latter associate with ER–PM junctions and recruit Orai1 under basal conditions. Agonist stimulation increases immobile STIM2 clusters, which coordinate recruitment of Orai1 and STIM1 to the junctions. Extended synaptotagmin (E-Syt)2/3 are required for forming the ER–PM junctions, but are not sufficient for STIM2 clustering. Importantly, inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R) function and local [Ca2+]ER are the main drivers of immobile STIM2 clusters. Enhancing, or decreasing, IP3R function at ambient [IP3] causes corresponding increase, or attenuation, of immobile STIM2 clusters. We show that immobile STIM2 clusters denote decreases in local [Ca2+]ER mediated by IP3R that is sensed by the STIM2 N terminus. Finally, under basal conditions, ambient PIP2-PLC activity of the cell determines IP3R function, immobilization of STIM2, and basal Ca2+ entry while agonist stimulation augments these processes. Together, our findings reveal that immobilization of STIM2 clusters within ER–PM junctions, a first response to ER-Ca2+ store depletion, is facilitated by the juxtaposition of IP3R and marks a checkpoint for initiation of Ca2+ entry.

2022 ◽  
Petar Gabrić ◽  
Mija Vandek

Verbal fluency tasks are often used in neuropsychological research and may have predictive and diagnostic utility in psychiatry and neurology. However, researchers using verbal fluency have uncritically assumed that there are no category- or phoneme-specific effects on verbal fluency performance. We recruited 16 young adult subjects and administered two semantic (animals, trees) and phonemic (K, M) fluency tasks. Because of the small sample size, results should be regarded as preliminary. On the animal compared to the tree task, subjects produced significantly more legal words, had a significantly lower intrusion rate, significantly shorter first-response latencies and final silence periods, as well as significantly shorter between-cluster response latencies. These differences may be explained by differences in the category sizes, integrity of the categories' borders, and efficiency of the functional connectivity between subcategories. On the K compared to the M task, subjects produced significantly more legal words and had significantly shorter between-cluster response times. Counterintuitively, a corpus analysis revealed there are more words starting with m compared to k in the experimental language. Our results have important implications for research utilizing verbal fluency, including decreased reproducibility, unreliability of diagnostic and predictive tools based on verbal fluency, and decreased knowledge accumulation.

Neville Morley

The connections between archaeology and haunting – the intrusion of the dead into the world of the living, breaking down the barriers between past and present – are a familiar trope of contemporary culture, firmly established in the fiction of the early twentieth century. Archaeologists and antiquarians delve recklessly in graveyards and abandoned churches and abandoned villages and shuttered rooms, they read forbidden texts and open doors and unseal barriers, and they find more than they bargained for.

mBio ◽  
2021 ◽  
Bindu Singh ◽  
Dhiraj K. Singh ◽  
Shashank R. Ganatra ◽  
Ruby A. Escobedo ◽  
Shabaana Khader ◽  

Myeloid cells are immunocytes of innate origin that orchestrate the first response toward pathogens via immune surveillance (uptake and killing), antigen presentation, and initiation of adaptive immunity by T cell stimulation. However, MDSCs are a subset of innate immunocytes that deviate to an immunoregulatory phenotype.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
pp. 81
Dylan Keegan ◽  
Eithne Heffernan ◽  
Jenny McSharry ◽  
Tomás Barry ◽  
Siobhán Masterson

Introduction: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a devastating health event that affects over 2000 people each year in Ireland. Survival rate is low, but immediate intervention and initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and administration of an automated external defibrillator (AED) can increase chances of survival. It is not always possible for the emergency medical services (EMS) to reach OHCA cases quickly. As such, volunteers, including lay and professional responders (e.g. off-duty paramedics and fire-fighters), trained in CPR and AED use, are mobilised by the EMS to respond locally to prehospital medical emergencies (e.g. OHCA and stroke). This is known as community first response (CFR). Data on the impact of CFR interventions are limited. This research aims to identify the most important CFR data to collect and analyse, the most important uses of CFR data, as well as barriers and facilitators to data collection and use. This can inform policies to optimise the practice of CFR in Ireland. Methods: The nominal group technique (NGT) is a structured consensus process where key stakeholders (e.g. CFR volunteers, clinicians, EMS personnel, and patients/relatives) develop a set of prioritised recommendations. This study will employ the NGT, incorporating an online survey and online consensus meeting, to develop a priority list for the collection and use of CFR data in Ireland. Stakeholder responses will also identify barriers and facilitators to data collection and use, as well as indicators that improvements to these processes have been achieved. The maximum sample size for the NGT will be 20 participants to ensure sufficient representation from stakeholder groups. Discussion: This study, employing the NGT, will consult key stakeholders to establish CFR data collection, analysis, and use priorities. Results from this study will inform CFR research, practice, and policy, to improve the national CFR service model and inform international response programs.

Circulation ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 144 (Suppl_2) ◽  
Eithne Heffernan ◽  
Dylan Keegan ◽  
Jenny Mc Sharry ◽  
Tomas Barry ◽  
Andrew Murphy ◽  

Introduction: Community First Response (CFR) is an important intervention for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in many countries. CFR entails the mobilization of volunteers by the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) to respond to OHCAs in their vicinity. These volunteers include lay-people and professionals (e.g. physicians, fire-fighters). CFR can increase rates of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or defibrillation performed prior to EMS arrival. However, its impact on additional outcomes (e.g. survival, cognitive function) requires further study. This research aimed to identify the most important CFR data to collect and analyze, as well as the most important uses of CFR data. Methods: This study used the Nominal Group Technique: a structured consensus process where key stakeholders develop a set of prioritized recommendations. There were 16 participants, including CFR volunteers, an OHCA survivor, researchers, clinicians, EMS personnel, and policy-makers. They completed an online survey to generate lists of the most important (1) CFR data to collect and analyze and (2) uses of CFR data. They then attended a virtual meeting where they discussed the survey results in groups before voting for their top ten priorities from each list. They also identified barriers to CFR data collection. Results: The top ten CFR data to collect and analyze included volunteer response time, interventions performed by volunteers, time of emergency, time of CPR initiation, individuals who performed CPR, and the mental and physical effects of being a volunteer. The top ten uses of CFR data included providing feedback to volunteers, increasing bystander participation in resuscitation, improving volunteer training, measuring CFR effectiveness, and encouraging inter-operability with the EMS. Barriers to data collection included time constraints, prioritization of patient care, and limited training. Conclusions: This study established priorities for the collection, analysis, and use of CFR data in consultation with key stakeholders. These findings have important implications for both CFR research and practice. In particular, they can be used to improve the efficiency, consistency, and utility of CFR data collection and to build evidence for this intervention.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (4) ◽  
pp. 369-374
I.G.A.A. Noviekayati ◽  
Eric Arizona Samudra ◽  
Carissa Valerie ◽  
Rizky Ariyanto ◽  
Mahardi Setia Barata

The attitude of disaster response to disaster-affected communities in general is an urgent priority to be given so that the community becomes resilient. So far, people are accustomed to relying on government assistance and are not able to provide an appropriate first response. This is because the community does not understand how to act appropriately when a disaster occurs in the area where they live. Law No. 24 of 2007 on Disaster Management. The subjects in this study were 110 Advanced Coaches, the Surabaya Kwarcab  Helping Brigade, the Surabaya Kwarcab  Care Scouts, the Surabaya Kwartir Branch Work Council using a knowledge scale on disaster response and psychoeducation related to Psychological First Aids. The results of the calculation of the t test (Paired Sample Test) obtained the results of t = 6.473 at p = 0.000. This means that between the pre-test and post-test of there is a very significant difference the experimental group in the knowledge of disaster response. The pre-test of the experimental group (Mean = 96.2553) was higher than the post-test of the experimental group (Mean = 88.5745), this indicates that PFA psychoeducation can increase knowledge about disaster response, thus indicating a significant relationship between psychoeducational independent variables. PFA with the dependent variable is knowledge about disaster response. The implication of this research is that it is expected to become an extension program so that it can increase knowledge related to disaster mitigation so that in the future members of the Rescue Brigadier can become the vanguard of disaster mitigation.

Blood ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 138 (Supplement 1) ◽  
pp. 2730-2730
Efstathios Kastritis ◽  
Monique C. Minnema ◽  
Meletios A. Dimopoulos ◽  
Giampaolo Merlini ◽  
Foteini Theodorakakou ◽  

Abstract Introduction: In systemic light chain (AL) amyloidosis free light chains produced by clonal plasma cells form amyloid fibrils that are deposited in tissues and organs resulting in organ dysfunction. Cardiac involvement by AL amyloidosis is frequent and the most critical prognostic factor. Prognostic evaluation in AL is based on cardiac biomarkers and patients with very high levels of both NTproBNP (≥8500 pg/ml) and cardiac Troponins (Mayo stage 3B) are at high-risk of early death and have a median survival of just 3-6 months in most series. The outcome of stage 3B patients has not improved despite the introduction of bortezomib-based therapies and there is an urgent need for new non-toxic treatments which can also lead to rapid and deep hematologic responses. Daratumumab, an IgGκ monoclonal antibody targeting CD38, has proved highly effective either alone or in combination with bortezomib, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone and with good tolerability in AL amyloidosis patients. Methods: EMN22 is a phase 2, open-label, multicenter study planning to enroll 40 newly diagnosed patients with stage 3B AL amyloidosis from 5 sites in Greece, the Netherlands, Italy and France. Eligible patients should have high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) >54 pg/mL and NT-proBNP ≥8500 pg/mL. Primary treatment consists of daratumumab monotherapy, initially administered intravenously at 16 mg/mL, and since February 2020 administered subcutaneously at a fixed dose of 1800 mg; weekly during Cycles 1-2, every 2 weeks for Cycles 3-6 and every 4 weeks thereafter. Patients who do not achieve a hematologic VGPR or better by Cycle 4 may also receive at investigator's discretion weekly bortezomib and low dose dexamethasone. Treatment continues until disease progression according to major organ deterioration progression-free survival criteria, start of new therapy, or for a maximum of 2 years. The current analysis includes patients who started treatment at least 3 months prior to the cut-off date (16 June 2021). Results: Among 17 patients included in this analysis, 9 (53%) are still on treatment and 8 (47%) have discontinued, either due to an adverse event (n=5, 29%), or due to disease progression (n=3, 18%). Most patients were males (n=12, 71%) and median age was 65 years (range 45-84). Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 1 for 5 (29%), 2 for 11 patients (65%), and 3 for one patient (6%). Eight (47%) patients had New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II symptoms, and 9 (53%) NYHA class IIIA. At screening, median NT-proBNP was 13,994 pg/mL (range 8,816-40,428), median hsTnT 119.1 pg/mL (range 59.8-692) and median difference of involved to uninvolved free light chains (dFLC) was 553 mg/L (range 49-2823). Apart from the heart, the median number of other organs involved was 1 (range 0-5), with nervous system (n=8, 47%) and kidneys (n=7, 41%) most commonly affected. The median number of daratumumab infusions was 13 and the median duration of therapy with daratumumab therapy was 3.7 months. Overall, 5 patients (29%) started additional treatment with bortezomib after completion of 3 cycles of daratumumab monotherapy. All 17 patients had at least one treatment-emergent adverse event. Eleven patients (65%) had a serious adverse event (SAE); 9 (53%) had at least one cardiac-related serious adverse event, and one SAE (fatigue) was related to bortezomib. Six patients (35%) suffered a fatal SAE: sepsis (n=1), sudden death (n=3), and cardiac failure (n=2). Most common grade 3 or 4 non-serious AEs were peripheral edema (n=4, 24%), dyspnea (n=3, 18%), and atrial fibrillation (n=2, 12%), and only one non-serious neutropenia grade 3 was related to daratumumab. The overall response rate was 71%, with 3 patients (18%) achieving CR, 6 (35%) VGPR, and 3 (18%) a PR, with a combined CR+VGPR rate of 53% (9/17). One-, two-, and three-month overall response rates were 65% (n=11), 71% (n=12), and 71% (n=12), and the median time to first response was 7 days while the median time to at least VGPR was 14 days. The 6-month and 12-month OS rate were 70% and 53% respectively (median OS has not been reached). Conclusions: In this prospective phase 2 study, in patients with high-risk AL amyloidosis (stage 3B), daratumumab monotherapy shows a favorable safety profile and induced very rapid and deep hematologic responses with a median time to first response of 7 days, with 53% of the patients achieving VGPR or better and a 6-month OS of 70%. Figure 1 Figure 1. Disclosures Kastritis: Janssen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Amgen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Takeda: Honoraria; Pfizer: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Genesis Pharma: Honoraria. Minnema: Jansen-Cilag: Consultancy; Kite/Gilead: Consultancy; Alnylam: Consultancy; Celgene: Other: Hospitality; BMS: Honoraria. Dimopoulos: Amgen: Honoraria; Beigene: Honoraria; BMS: Honoraria; Takeda: Honoraria; Janssen: Honoraria. Huart: Janssen: Honoraria. Leonidakis: Health Data Specialists: Current Employment. Manousou: Health Data Specialists: Current Employment. Sonneveld: Amgen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Celgene/BMS: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Janssen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Karyopharm: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; SkylineDx: Honoraria, Research Funding; Takeda: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding. Palladini: Pfizer: Honoraria; Siemens: Honoraria; Janssen Global Services: Honoraria, Other: advisory board fees.

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