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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Steven Barracosa ◽  
James March

Background: In 2018 in the Australian State of New South Wales, a specialist Countering Violent Extremism Unit was established in the youth criminal justice system. This was in direct response to a number of youth below the age of 18 who have been charged for terrorism offences and identified as involved in violent extremist acts. This youth-specific framework was the first of its kind in Australia. It was designed to provide multidisciplinary practitioner-based approaches for the early-identification, diversion, and disengagement of at-risk and radicalised youth offenders.Aims: This paper will explore the experiences and lessons learned by the Youth Justice New South Wales Countering Violent Extremism Unit. It will discuss the relevance of youth radicalisation within Australia's evolving national security climate. This includes emerging trends in relation to youth radicalisation to varied violent extremist ideologies. This paper will explore the specialist approach adopted for preventing and countering violent extremism through the identification, assessment, and case management of at-risk and radicalised youth offenders.Implications: The Youth Justice New South Wales experience indicates that youth criminal justice settings can be designed to tackle the challenges posed by at-risk and radicalised youth. The practitioner experience canvassed in this paper highlights that a pluralistic and non-punitive approach to supervision, client-focused assessment and case management processes, and widespread resourcing of multidisciplinary practitioners and programs can be used to account for developmental and psychosocial vulnerabilities in addition to violent extremism risk factors amongst youth offenders. These approaches should be supplemented by youth-specific countering violent extremism practitioner expertise, and a range of violent extremism case management and risk assessment measures.


2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Igor Ivannikov ◽  
Brian Dollery ◽  
Leopold Bayerlein

PurposeThe paper addresses the question of whether Crown land managed by local authorities in the New South Wales (NSW) local government system should be recognised as assets on municipal balance sheets.Design/methodology/approachThe paper provides a synoptic review of the literature on accounting for public goods assets followed by a critical analysis of the official requirements of the NSW government on the recognition of Crown land.FindingsThe NSW government holds that Crown land managed by local councils should be recognised as an asset on council books. However, following an assessment of the problem through the analytical prism of financial accounting, it is argued that councils do not possess control over Crown land and that such land should thus not be recognised by councils.Research limitations/implicationsThe paper covers the legal and accounting framework applicable to NSW local government. However, it has broader implications for other local government systems with similar institutional and legislative foundations, such as other Australian states, New Zealand and South Africa, and these implications are highlighted in the paper.Practical implicationsIt is argued that NSW government policymakers should re-consider the requirement for Crown land to be recognised on councils' books. Local authorities would then be able to save money and time on external auditing, management of land asset registers and the mandatory valuation of land.Originality/valueAlthough Crown land shares some of the characteristics of other public good assets, unique accounting challenges arise due to the existence of a market in which such land could be traded not by councils, but by its legal owner (the Crown). In financial accounting, legal ownership is not considered as the main criterion over assets. However, the authors argue that for Crown land vested with councils, it becomes a critical factor in decision making.


Author(s):  
Rhiannon L Holdsworth ◽  
Elizabeth Downie ◽  
Matthew J Georgiades ◽  
Ross Bradbury ◽  
Julian Druce ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Angus McLure ◽  
Craig Shadbolt ◽  
Patricia M. Desmarchelier ◽  
Martyn D. Kirk ◽  
Kathryn Glass

Abstract Background Salmonella is a major cause of zoonotic illness around the world, arising from direct or indirect contact with a range of animal reservoirs. In the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW), salmonellosis is believed to be primarily foodborne, but the relative contribution of animal reservoirs is unknown. Methods The analysis included 4543 serotyped isolates from animal reservoirs and 30,073 serotyped isolates from domestically acquired human cases in NSW between January 2008 and August 2019. We used a Bayesian source attribution methodology to estimate the proportion of foodborne Salmonella infections attributable to broiler chickens, layer chickens, ruminants, pigs, and an unknown or unsampled source. Additional analyses included covariates for four time periods and five levels of rurality. Results A single serotype, S. Typhimurium, accounted for 65–75% of included cases during 2008–2014 but < 50% during 2017–2019. Attribution to layer chickens was highest during 2008–2010 (48.7%, 95% CrI 24.2–70.3%) but halved by 2017–2019 (23.1%, 95% CrI 5.7–38.9%) and was lower in the rural and remote populations than in the majority urban population. The proportion of cases attributed to the unsampled source was 11.3% (95% CrI 1.2%–22.1%) overall, but higher in rural and remote populations. The proportion of cases attributed to pork increased from approximately 20% in 2009–2016 to approximately 40% in 2017–2019, coinciding with a rise in cases due to Salmonella ser. 4,5,12:i:-. Conclusion Layer chickens were likely the primary reservoir of domestically acquired Salmonella infections in NSW circa 2010, but attribution to the source declined contemporaneously with increased vaccination of layer flocks and tighter food safety regulations for the handling of eggs.


2021 ◽  
Vol 87 ◽  
pp. 81-113 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zachary Lahey ◽  
Elijah Talamas ◽  
Lubomir Masner ◽  
Norman F. Johnson

The genus Alfredella Masner &amp; Huggert is revised. Alfredella tasmanica Masner &amp; Huggert is redescribed, Al. teres (Buhl), comb. nov. is transferred to Alfredella from Amitus Haldeman, and Al. auriel Lahey, sp. nov. (New South Wales, Tasmania) and Al. mephisto Lahey, sp. nov. (Western Australia) are described as new. The genus Masnerium Polaszek, syn. nov. is treated as a junior synonym of Amitus, and its type species, M. wellsae Polaszek, is transferred to Amitus as Am. wellsae (Polaszek), comb. nov. The relationship between Alfredella and morphologically similar genera is discussed, and a key is provided to distinguish between Aleyroctonus Masner &amp; Huggert, Alfredella, and Amitus.


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