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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sarah R. Gutbrod ◽  
Allan Shuros ◽  
Vijay Koya ◽  
Michelle Alexander-Curtis ◽  
Lauren Lehn ◽  

Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the effect local impedance (LI) has on an ablation workflow when combined with a contact force (CF) ablation catheter.Methods: Left pulmonary vein isolation was performed in an in vivo canine model (N = 8) using a nominal (30 W) or an elevated (50 W) power strategy with a CF catheter. The catheter was enabled to measure LI prior to and during ablation. LI was visible for only one of the vein isolations.Results: Chronic block was achieved in all animals when assessed 30 ± 5 days post-ablation procedure with a median LI drop during RF ranging from 23.0 to 34.0 Ω. In both power cohorts, the median radiofrequency (RF) duration decreased if LI was visible to the operator (30 W only CF: 17.0 s; 30 W CF + LI: 14.0 s, p = 0.009; 50 W only CF: 6.0 s; 50 W CF + LI: 4.0 s, p = 0.019). An inverse relationship between the LI prior to RF delivery and the RF duration required to achieve an effective lesion was observed. There was no correlation between the magnitude of the applied force and the drop in LI, once at least 5 g was achieved.Conclusions: An elevated power strategy with the context of CF and LI led to the most efficient titration of successful RF energy delivery. The combination of feedback allows for customization of the ablation strategy based on local tissue variation rather than a uniform approach that could potentially lead to overtreatment. Higher LI drops were more readily achievable when an elevated power strategy was utilized, especially in conditions where the catheter was coupled against tissue with low resistivity. Clinical study is warranted to determine if there is an additive safety benefit to visualizing the dynamics of the tissue response to RF energy with LI when an elevated power strategy is used.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 424
Sunanda Roy ◽  
Jun-Jiat Tiang ◽  
Mardeni Bin Roslee ◽  
Md. Tanvir Ahmed ◽  
Abbas Z. Kouzani ◽  

For low input radio frequency (RF) power from −35 to 5 dBm, a novel quad-band RF energy harvester (RFEH) with an improved impedance matching network (IMN) is proposed to overcome the poor conversion efficiency and limited RF power range of the ambient environment. In this research, an RF spectral survey was performed in the semi-urban region of Malaysia, and using these results, a multi-frequency highly sensitive RF energy harvester was designed to harvest energy from available frequency bands within the 0.8 GHz to 2.6 GHz frequency range. Firstly, a new IMN is implemented to improve the rectifying circuit’s efficiency in ambient conditions. Secondly, a self-complementary log-periodic higher bandwidth antenna is proposed. Finally, the design and manufacture of the proposed RF harvester’s prototype are carried out and tested to realize its output in the desired frequency bands. For an accumulative −15 dBm input RF power that is uniformly universal across the four radio frequency bands, the harvester’s calculated dc rectification efficiency is about 35 percent and reaches 52 percent at −20 dBm. Measurement in an ambient RF setting shows that the proposed harvester is able to harvest dc energy at −20 dBm up to 0.678 V.

2022 ◽  
Vol 110 (1) ◽  
pp. 74-88
Eric Kwiatkowski ◽  
Jose Antonio Estrada ◽  
Ana Lopez-Yela ◽  
Zoya Popovic

2021 ◽  
Santi P. Maity ◽  
Tamaghna Acharya

Abstract This paper explores the impact of co-channel interference (CCI) on the link outage and radio frequency (RF) energy harvesting (EH). For analysis, co-operative cognitive radio network (CCRN) architecture is considered as system model that supports one-way primary user (PU) and two-way secondary user (SU) communications, using an overlay mode of spectrum sharing. Closed form outage expressions are derived for both PU and SU network in presence of multiple antennas at PUs and CCI at SUs. The effect of CCI on the system performance is studied with respect to interference-to-noise-ratio (INR), transmission power, number of antennas and number of CCI sources. Performance gains are found to achieve ~ 20% and ~ 15% for PU and SU outage in two antenna system over a single antenna one.

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (24) ◽  
pp. 8198
Juan Sun ◽  
Shubin Zhang ◽  
Kaikai Chi

This paper investigates the secrecy communication in an underlay cognitive radio (CR) networks with one primary user (PU) as well as multiple PUs, where the radio frequency (RF) energy-harvesting secondary user (SU) transmits the confidential information to the destination in the presence of a potential eavesdropper. We introduce a RF energy-harvesting secondary jammer (SJ) to secure the SU transmissions. The system works in time slots, where each time slot is divided into the energy transfer (ET) phase and the information transfer (IT) phase. In ET phase, the SU and SJ capture energy from the PU transmissions; in the IT phase, the SU uses the harvested energy to transmit information to the destination without causing the harmful interference to the PU transmissions, while the SJ utilizes the captured energy to generate jamming signals to the eavesdropper to secure the SU transmissions. We aim to maximize the secrecy rate for SU transmissionsby jointly optimizing the time allocation between ET phase and IT phase and the transmit power allocation at the SU and SJ. We first formulate the secrecy rate maximization as non-convex optimization problems. Then, we propose efficient nested form algorithms for the non-convex problems. In the outer layer, we obtain the optimal time allocation by the one dimension search method. In the inner layer, we obtain the optimal transmit power allocation by the DC programming, where the Lagrange duality method is employed to solve the convex approximation problem. Simulation results verify that the proposed schemes essentially improve the secrecy rate of the secondary network as compared to the benchmark schemes.

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