pulsed field
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Nico Reinsch ◽  
Anna Füting ◽  
Dennis Höwel ◽  
Kars Neven

Atul Verma ◽  
Lucas Boersma ◽  
David E. Haines ◽  
Andrea Natale ◽  
Francis E. Marchlinski ◽  

Background: Pulsed field ablation (PFA) is a novel form of ablation using electrical fields to ablate cardiac tissue. There are only limited data assessing the feasibility and safety of this type of ablation in humans. Methods: PULSED AF (Pulsed Field Ablation to Irreversibly Electroporate Tissue and Treat AF; https://www.clinicaltrials.gov ; unique identifier: NCT04198701) is a nonrandomized, prospective, multicenter, global, premarket clinical study. The first-in-human pilot phase evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of pulmonary vein isolation using a novel PFA system delivering bipolar, biphasic electrical fields through a circular multielectrode array catheter (PulseSelect; Medtronic, Inc). Thirty-eight patients with paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation were treated in 6 centers in Australia, Canada, the United States, and the Netherlands. The primary outcomes were ability to achieve acute pulmonary vein isolation intraprocedurally and safety at 30 days. Results: Acute electrical isolation was achieved in 100% of pulmonary veins (n=152) in the 38 patients. Skin-to-skin procedure time was 160±91 minutes, left atrial dwell time was 82±35 minutes, and fluoroscopy time was 28±9 minutes. No serious adverse events related to the PFA system occurred in the 30-day follow-up including phrenic nerve injury, esophageal injury, stroke, or death. Conclusions: In this first-in-human clinical study, 100% pulmonary vein isolation was achieved using only PFA with no PFA system–related serious adverse events.

2021 ◽  
Mahmoud Elsayed ◽  
Hyung Kwak ◽  
Ammar El-Husseiny ◽  
Mohamed Mahmoud

Abstract Tortuosity, in general characterizes the geometric complexity of porous media. It is considered as one of the key factors in characterizing the heterogonous structure of porous media and has significant implications for macroscopic transport flow properties. There are four widely used definitions of tortuosity, that are relevant to different fields from hydrology to chemical and petroleum engineering, which are: geometric, hydraulic, electrical, and diffusional. Recent work showed that hydraulic, electrical and diffusional tortuosity values are roughly equal to each other in glass beads. Nevertheless, the relationship between the different definitions of Tortuosity in natural rocks is not well understood yet. Understanding the relationship between the different Tortuosity definitions in rocks can help to establish a workflow that allows us to estimate other types from the available technique. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between the different tortuosity definitions in natural rocks. A major focus of this work is to utilize Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) technology to estimate Tortuosity. Such technique has been traditionally used to obtain diffusional tortuosity which can be defined as the ratio of the free fluid self-diffusion coefficient to the restricted fluid self-diffusion coefficient inside the porous media. In this study, the following techniques were used to quantify hydraulic, electrical, and diffusional tortuosity respectively on the same rock sample: (1) Microcomputed Tomography 3D imaging (2) Four-Electrodes resistivity measurements (3) Pulsed-Field Gradient Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (PFG NMR). PFG NMR is very powerful, non-invasive technique employed to measure the self-diffusion coefficient for free and confined fluids. The measurements were done based on two carbonate rock core plugs characterized by variable porosity, permeability and texture complexity. Results show that PFG NMR can be applied directionally to quantify the pore network anisotropy created by fractures. For both samples, hydraulic tortuosity was found to have the lowest magnitude compared to geometric, electrical and diffusional tortuosity. This could be explained by the more heterogeneous microstructure of carbonate rocks. NMR technique has however advantages over the other electrical and imaging techniques for tortuosity characterization: it is faster, non-destructive and can be applied in well bore environment (in situ). We therefore conclude that NMR can provide a tool for estimating not only diffusional tortuosity but also for indirectly obtaining hydraulic and electrical tortuosity.

Tina Baykaner ◽  
Muhammad Fazal ◽  
Atul Verma

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (11) ◽  
Farzad Mohamadi ◽  
Jalil Vand Yousefi ◽  
Naser Harzandi ◽  
Sobhan Ghafourian

Background: Due to the importance of identifying the source of infectious agents, different typing methods have been developed, among which the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method is known as the gold standard for bacteria. Also, Enterococcus faecalis is classified as a nosocomial infection. Objectives: The current study aimed to identify the source of E. faecalis by the PFGE method. Methods: Bacteria were collected from all cases of urinary tract infections. Then, the identification process was performed. All isolates were evaluated for vancomycin resistance, and then PFGE was carried out. Results: The results of disk diffusion showed that 54% of the isolates showed resistance to vancomycin. Also, 4% of the isolates were intermediate, and 42% showed sensitivity to vancomycin. Afterwards, the PCR of the VanA gene was performed to confirm the results of disk diffusion. Thus, 48 out of 54 (88.8%) isolates had the VanA gene, and none of the four intermediate isolates had the VanA gene. Our results demonstrated that 54 isolates were vancomycin-resistant, and 50 different pulsotypes groups were identified. Conclusions: Our findings showed the isolates of E. faecalis were from different clonal lineages.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Abdelqader Zaben ◽  
Guntars Kitenbergs ◽  
Andrejs Cēbers

AbstractMagnetic filaments driven by external magnetic field are an interesting topic of research in-terms of the possible bio-medical applications. In this paper, we investigated the applicability of using ferromagnetic filaments as micro swimmers both experimentally and numerically. It was found that applying a pulse wave field profile with a duty cycle of 30$$\%$$ % induced experimentally observable swimming, which is similar to the breast stroke of micro algae. Good agreement with numerical simulations was found. Moreover, for stable continuous swimming, an initial filament shape is required to avoid transition to the structurally preferred non-swimming S-like mode.

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