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2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 889-894
Author(s):  
Nelson Jessé Rodrigues dos Santos ◽  
◽  
Renan Bressianini do Amaral ◽  
Luiz Ricardo Gonçalves ◽  
Rogério Ribas Lange ◽  
...  

Bartonella is an emerging group of facultative intracellular bacteria causing circulatory and systemic disorders. Hosts for Bartonella are mostly mammals, specifically rodents, having a growing number of Bartonella species related to their infection. Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) are abundant native rodents of Brazil, commonly found in urban parks. In the present study, we aimed to perform molecular screening of capybaras for Bartonella spp. Blood samples were collected from 17 free-ranging animals captured in Paraná State, Southern Brazil. None of the collected samples tested positive for the Bartonella-nuoG gene by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), although all of them successfully amplified the mammal endogenous glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh) gene. Additionally, all animals were infested exclusively by Amblyomma dubitatum ticks at the time of sampling. This study was part of an active surveillance program, which is critical for monitoring animal health status, particularly in capybaras.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Cynthia Hopf-Dennis ◽  
Sarrah Kaye ◽  
Nicholas Hollingshead ◽  
Marjory Brooks ◽  
Elizabeth Bunting ◽  
...  

Abstract Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) continue to be used across the United States as a method for controlling unwanted rodent species. As a consequence, wild birds of prey are exposed to toxins by eating poisoned prey items. ARs prevent the hepatic recycling of vitamin K and thereby impede the post-translational processing of coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X that is required for procoagulant complex assembly. Through this mechanism of action, ARs cause hemorrhage and death in their target species. Various studies have documented the persistence of these contaminants in birds of prey but few have attempted to use affordable and accessible diagnostic tests to diagnose exposure in free-ranging birds of prey. In our study free-ranging red-tailed hawks were found to be exposed to difethialone and brodifacoum. Eleven of sixteen (68%) livers tested for AR exposure were positive. Difethialone was found in 1/16 (6%) liver samples, and brodifacoum was detected in 15/16 (93%) liver samples. Difethialone was found at a concentration of 0.18 ppm and brodifacoum concentrations ranged from 0.003-0.234 ppm. Two out of 34 (6%) RTH assessed for blood rodenticide had brodifacoum in blood with measured concentrations of 0.003 and 0.006 ppm. The range of clotting times in the prothrombin time (PT) and Russell’s viper venom time assays for control RTH were 16.7 to 39.7 seconds and 11.5 to 91.8 seconds, respectively. No correlation was found between PT and RVVT in the control or free-range RTH, and there was no relationship found between the presence of liver anticoagulant residues and clotting times in the PT and RVVT.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Christiana Wittmaack ◽  
Jorge Urbán Ramírez ◽  
Daniela Bernot-Simon ◽  
Sergio Martínez-Aguilar ◽  
Seenivasan Subbiah ◽  
...  

Information on stress, reproductive fitness, and health is difficult to obtain in wild cetaceans but critical for conservation and management. The goal of this study was to develop a methodology requiring minimal blubber mass for analysis of reproductive and stress steroid hormones and, hence, suitable for cetacean biopsies. Blubber biopsies and samples were collected from free-ranging and stranded gray and fin whales. Steroid hormones were extracted from blubber samples as small as 50 mg using liquid-liquid extraction methodology developed to handle the high fat content of blubber. Samples were analyzed via liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry for 10 hormones: aldosterone, androstenedione, cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone, 17β-estradiol, estrone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, progesterone, and testosterone. As part of the optimization, homogenization via bead beating and blade dispersion were compared, and the former found superior. To investigate optimal yet minimal tissue mass required, hormone panels were compared among paired 50, 150, and 400 mg samples, the latter two being commonly reported masses for hormone blubber analysis. Results indicated that 50 mg of blubber was suitable and sometimes superior. Additionally, significant differences in precision values were observed between species, possibly stemming from differences in blubber composition, and relevant to homogenization technique selection and calibration methods that use blubber matrix matches obtained from a species other than the study species. Based on recovery and precision values, our methodology was accurate and precise in the measurement of spiked known quantities for all 10 hormones, confirming the methodology capabilities in 50 mg blubber mass in both species. Altogether, and in our specific sample sets, all endogenous hormones, except corticosterone, were identified above the detection limit in 50 mg gray whale blubber samples while all endogenous hormones, except aldosterone, cortisone, estrone, and progesterone, were detected in 50 mg fin whale blubber samples. We present a robust methodology for the analysis of multiple reproductive and stress steroid hormones in minimal masses of cetacean blubber compatible with small biopsies. Finally, we identified statistically significant differences in corticosteroid concentrations between stranded and free ranging animals.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sonalika Mahajan ◽  
Karikalan Mathesh ◽  
Vishal Chander ◽  
Abhijit M Pawde ◽  
G Saikumar ◽  
...  

We report patho-morphological and virological characterization of SARS-CoV-2 in naturally infected, free ranging Indian Leopard (Panthera pardus fusca). Whole genome sequence analysis confirmed infection of Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2, possibly spill over from humans, but the case was detected when infection level had dropped significantly in human population. This report underlines the need for intensive screening of wild animals for keeping track of the virus evolution and development of carrier status of SARS-CoV-2 among wildlife species.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Guillaume Peron

The graph transitivity measures the probability that adjacent vertices in a network are interconnected, thus revealing the existence of tightly connected neighborhoods playing a role in information and pathogen circulation. The graph transitivity is usually computed for dichotomized networks, therefore focusing on whether triangular relationships are closed or open. But when the connections vary in strength, focusing on whether the closing ties exist or not can be reductive. I score the weighted transitivity according to the similarity between the weights of the three possible links in each triad. In a simulation, that new technique correctly diagnosed excesses of balanced or imbalanced triangles, for example, strong triplets closed by weak links. I illustrate the biological relevance of that information with two reanalyses of animal contact networks. In the rhesus macaque Macaca mulatta, a species in which kin relationships strongly predict social relationships, the new metrics revealed striking similarities in the configuration of grooming networks in captive and free-ranging groups, but only as long as the matrilines were preserved. In the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis, in an experiment designed to test the long-term effect of the goslings' social environment, the new metrics uncovered an excess of weak triplets closed by strong links, particularly pronounced in males, and consistent with the triadic process underlying goose dominance relationships.


2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 135
Author(s):  
Enric Vidal ◽  
Judit Burgaya ◽  
Lorraine Michelet ◽  
Claudia Arrieta-Villegas ◽  
Guillermo Cantero ◽  
...  

Voles are maintenance hosts of Mycobacterium microti. In line with the goal to eradicate tuberculosis (TB) in livestock, the role of this mycobacteria needs to be assessed since it might interfere with current M. bovis/M. caprae surveillance strategies. To better understand the pathogenesis of TB in voles, an experimental infection model was set up to reproduce M. microti infection in laboratory Bank voles (Myodes glareolus). Two infection routes (intragastric and intraperitoneal) and doses (105 and 106 CFU/0.1 mL) were assessed. Voles were culled at different post-infection time points. Serology, histopathology, acid-fast bacilli staining, qPCR, and mycobacterial culture from tissues were performed. In addition, qPCR from feces and oral swabs were conducted to assess bacterial shedding. The model allowed us to faithfully reproduce the disease phenotype described in free-ranging voles and characterize the pathogenesis of the infection. Most animals showed multifocal and diffuse granulomatous lesions in the liver and spleen, respectively. Less frequently, granulomas were observed in lungs, lymph nodes, muscles, and salivary gland. Mycobacterial DNA was detected in feces from a few animals but not in oral swabs. However, one contact uninfected vole seroconverted and showed incipient TB compatible lesions, suggesting horizontal transmission between voles.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Christopher M Roundy ◽  
Chase M Nunez ◽  
Logan F Thomas ◽  
Lisa D Auckland ◽  
Wendy Tang ◽  
...  

Free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginanus) across the United States are increasingly recognized as involved in SARS-CoV-2 transmission cycles. Through a cross-sectional study of 80 deer at three captive cervid facilities in central and southern Texas, we provide evidence of 34 of 36 (94.4%) white-tailed deer at a single captive cervid facility seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 by neutralization assay (PRNT90), with endpoint titers as high as 1280. In contrast, all tested white-tailed deer and axis deer (Axis axis) at two other captive cervid facilities were seronegative, and SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not detected in respiratory swabs from deer at any of the three facilities. These data support transmission among captive deer that cannot be explained by human contact for each infected animal, as only a subset of the seropositive does had direct human contact. The facility seroprevalence was more than double of that reported from wild deer, suggesting that the confined environment may facilitate transmission. Further exploration of captive cervids and other managed animals for their role in the epizootiology of SARS-CoV-2 is critical for understanding impacts on animal health and the potential for spillback transmission to humans or other animal taxa.


Author(s):  
Marina Scheumann ◽  
Kathrin M. Röper ◽  
Senthilvel K. S. S. Nathan ◽  
Benoit Goossens

AbstractVocal intervention is a triadic social interaction, where a third party responds vocally to a conflict between group members, minimizing the costs of aggression in response to the intervention. Because there is little information on vocal third-party intervention in nonhuman mammals, we investigated whether adult male proboscis monkeys use the bray vocalization as a vocal third-party intervention signal to intervene in intragroup conflicts. First, we audio-recorded 1,811 vocalizations from 17 free-ranging proboscis monkey groups in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary, analyzing 378 vocal responses of the adult male to agonistic vocal exchanges (shrieks) of group members. Second, we video- and audio-recorded five habituated groups in the Labuk Bay Proboscis Monkey Sanctuary investigating the context of these vocalizations and the conflict dyads evoking vocal support. We found that adult males of one-male/multifemale groups mainly uttered bray vocalizations, whereas females, immatures, and infants uttered shrieks in intragroup conflicts or in response to other animal species. The adult male uttered significantly more often brays after agonistic shrieks than expected based on the overall occurrence of brays. Brays ended 65% of agonistic conflicts, which were accompanied by vocalizations of the conflict partners and occurred more often after conflicts between females than between offspring. This suggests that the bray functions as a vocal third-party intervention signal for intragroup conflict resolution. We suggest that living in the high canopies of the tropical rainforest might restrict direct access to conflict partners and prevent physical intervention, favoring the evolution of the bray as a third-party vocal intervention signal.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jean-marie Ballouard ◽  
Xavier Bonnet ◽  
Julie Jourdan ◽  
Albert Martinez-Silvestre ◽  
Stéphane Gagno ◽  
...  

Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 93
Author(s):  
Daniel Felipe Barrantes Murillo ◽  
Marta Piche-Ovares ◽  
José Carlos Gamboa-Solano ◽  
Luis Mario Romero ◽  
Claudio Soto-Garita ◽  
...  

Arboviruses have two ecological transmission cycles: sylvatic and urban. For some, the sylvatic cycle has not been thoroughly described in America. To study the role of wildlife in a putative sylvatic cycle, we sampled free-ranging bats and birds in two arbovirus endemic locations and analyzed them using molecular, serological, and histological methods. No current infection was detected, and no significant arbovirus-associated histological changes were observed. Neutralizing antibodies were detected against selected arboviruses. In bats, positivity in 34.95% for DENV-1, 16.26% for DENV-2, 5.69% for DENV-3, 4.87% for DENV-4, 2.43% for WNV, 4.87% for SLEV, 0.81% for YFV, 7.31% for EEEV, and 0.81% for VEEV was found. Antibodies against ZIKV were not detected. In birds, PRNT results were positive against WNV in 0.80%, SLEV in 5.64%, EEEV in 8.4%, and VEEV in 5.63%. An additional retrospective PRNT analysis was performed using bat samples from three additional DENV endemic sites resulting in a 3.27% prevalence for WNV and 1.63% for SLEV. Interestingly, one sample resulted unequivocally WNV positive confirmed by serum titration. These results suggest that free-ranging bats and birds are exposed to not currently reported hyperendemic-human infecting Flavivirus and Alphavirus; however, their role as reservoirs or hosts is still undetermined.


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