Bohai Sea ice creates obstacles for maritime navigation and offshore activities. A better understanding of ice conditions is valuable for sea-ice management. The evolution of 67 years of seasonal ice thickness in a coastal region (Yingkou) in the Northeast Bohai Sea was simulated by using a snow/ice thermodynamic model, using local weather-station data. The model was first validated by using seasonal ice observations from field campaigns and a coastal radar (the season of 2017/2018). The model simulated seasonal ice evolution well, particularly ice growth. We found that the winter seasonal mean air temperature in Yingkou increased by 0.33 °C/decade slightly higher than air temperature increase (0.27 °C/decade) around Bohai Sea. The decreasing wind-speed trend (0.05 m/s perdecade) was a lot weaker than that averaged (0.3 m/s per decade) between the early 1970s and 2010s around the entire Bohai Sea. The multi-decadal ice-mass balance revealed decreasing trends of the maximum and average ice thickness of 2.6 and 0.8 cm/decade, respectively. The length of the ice season was shortened by 3.7 days/decade, and ice breakup dates were advanced by 2.3 days/decade. All trends were statistically significant. The modeled seasonal maximum ice thickness is highly correlated (0.83, p < 0.001) with the Bohai Sea Ice Index (BoSI) used to quantify the severity of the Bohai Sea ice condition. The freezing-up date, however, showed a large interannual variation without a clear trend. The simulations indicated that Bohai ice thickness has grown continuously thinner since 1951/1952. The time to reach 0.15 m level ice was delayed from 3 January to 21 January, and the ending time advanced from 6 March to 19 February. There was a significant weakening of ice conditions in the 1990s, followed by some recovery in 2000s. The relationship between large-scale climate indices and ice condition suggested that the AO and NAO are strongly correlated with interannual changes in sea-ice thickness in the Yingkou region.
Extensive production and application of magnetic minerals introduces significant amounts of magnetic wastes into the environment. Exposure to magnetic minerals could affect microbial community composition and geographic distribution. Here, we report that magnetic susceptibility is involved in determining bacterial α-diversity and community composition in surface sediment across the Bohai Sea by high-throughput sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. The results showed that environmental factors (explained 9.80%) played a larger role than spatial variables (explained 6.72%) in conditioning the bacterial community composition. Exposure to a magnetite center may shape the geographical distribution of five dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria. The microbial iron reduction ability and electroactive activity in sediment close to a magnetite center are stronger than those far away. Our study provides a novel understanding for the response of DIRB and electroactive bacteria to magnetic minerals exposure.