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Author(s):  
Lídia Raquel Herculano Maia ◽  
Olga Demushina ◽  
Stephen D. McDowell

Social networking sites can be defined as online services that allow users to create public or private profiles and, among other things, create connections, share opinions, news, and affections. In 2014, many electors in Brazil were engaged in the presidential campaign on these virtual spaces as never before. In this context, the research question guiding this study is: What are the communication strategies employed by electors and the three main presidential candidates in the online interaction processes during the 2014 Brazilian elections? To address this question, empirical research was employed using a qualitative approach to analyze comments posted in the candidates’ Facebook fan pages during that electoral process. Based on the research and theory in this field, two types of communication in the virtual space were investigated: (a) vertical communication through interaction between Internet users and campaign staff; and (b) horizontal communication among electors in the comments section. We conclude that, although the comments section of the candidates’ pages on Facebook is frequently used as a space both for mutual support and incivility against opponents, it is still used creatively for discussion on the candidates’ government plans, the situation of the country, attempts of engagement in the electoral process and exposure to ideologically crosscutting viewpoints.


Author(s):  
Kiran Juliana Kappeler ◽  
Noemi Festic ◽  
Michael Latzer ◽  
Tanja Rüedy

In today’s digitized society, internet users increasingly rely on online services that apply algorithmic selection, like for instance Google Search or the Facebook News Feed. The algorithms that are implemented in these services automatically select information sets and assign relevance to them. This entails societal risks such as privacy breaches, surveillance, manipulation, or overuse. One way for internet users to cope with these risks, is the use of self-help strategies such as deleting cookies or using an adblocker. Therefore, this article wants to answer the following question: What are the factors that promote internet users’ self-help against algorithmic risks? To do so, we analyze nationally representative survey data for three types of algorithmic risks: surveillance, manipulation, and internet overuse. The structural equation models show that being aware of algorithmic risks (H1), having had negative experiences that are related to these risks (H2) and possessing a higher level of internet skills (H3) are positively associated with the use of self-help strategies against algorithmic risks. Therefore, we conclude that awareness of algorithmic risks and internet skills should be promoted to increase internet users’ self-help. Nevertheless, self-help can only complement—but not substitute—statutory regulation to attenuate algorithmic risks.


2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (9) ◽  
pp. 548-556
Author(s):  
D. Zulpukarova ◽  
D. Kultaeva ◽  
A. Jakypbekova

The article is devoted to the problem of the development of the creative activity of students in grades 5–6 in the process of teaching mathematics. It is noted that the fulfillment of a creative task requires from students not a simple reproduction of information, but creativity, since the tasks contain a greater or lesser element of obscurity. A creative task is the content, the basis of any interactive method. A creative task (especially practical and close to the student's life) gives meaning to learning, motivates pupils. To develop the creative activity of students, you can use specially developed various software tools (Learning Apps, Mentimeter, Quzizz, etc.) in the lesson. With the help of a huge number of online services, you can create a whole collection of interactive tasks of the following nature: study an interactive lecture and answer the questions; answer questions of the test, quiz (with one or many correct answers); build a timeline and others.


2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (3) ◽  
pp. 350-356
Author(s):  
Helena Štimac ◽  
Ivan Kelić ◽  
Karla Bilandžić

The behavior of e-customers is quite unpredictable, which raises additional questions about this topic. The purpose of the paper is to conduct research on e-customers, understand the impact of marketing actions on e-customer behavior and understand the unpredictability of e-customers. Research was conducted on the Mlinar web shop that sells cakes. 284 respondents/buyers had the opportunity to solve questionnaires about behavior after purchase and consumption of product. Different methods have been used in the analysis - descriptive statistics, multivariate analysis (reliability analysis, correlation analysis and linear regression) and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results showed that most examinees were satisfied with online shopping on the Mlinar web shop and that they are impulsive when online shopping. Saving time is the main reason to buy on a web shop. Research proved that variables such as firm reputation/perceived value, e-satisfaction and online services positively affect the creation of e-loyalty in their users.


2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (2) ◽  
pp. 172-179
Author(s):  
Andrey A. Kuznetsov

Problem and goal. The relevance of this study is emphasized by the increasing need and importance of distance education in the modern world in connection with the pandemic, as well as the increased demand of teachers and students of different levels for the tools of the virtual classroom. The purpose of this work is to introduce teachers to the tools of the Internet, to present a classification of these tools, resources and existing electronic educational environments for working in distance learning. Methodology. The use of the Langteach-online cross-platform learning environment during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the experience of working with LMS Moodle and LMS Canvas related to the construction of online courses are analyzed. A comparative analysis of online services and the use of QR technology for educational purposes for the modernization of the developed format of the electronic educational environment is carried out. Results. The experience of modernizing the format under study to expand the range of disciplines and forms of education in the field of which it can be applied at the levels of secondary and higher education in the Russian Federation is presented. The working conditions of the environment, its functionality and requirements for the teacher as the organizer of the educational environment of this format are described. Conclusion. The presented format expands the effective tools of the teacher, integrates mobile technologies into the educational process, forms multifunctional online libraries of various-format educational materials.


Author(s):  
Prince Atorkey ◽  
Christine Paul ◽  
John Wiggers ◽  
Billie Bonevski ◽  
Aimee Mitchell ◽  
...  

Uptake of online and telephone services targeting health behaviours is low among vocational education students and barriers and facilitators are unknown. This study aimed to explore barriers and facilitators to uptake of online and telephone services for smoking, nutrition, alcohol, and physical activity (SNAP) risk behaviours via semi-structured individual telephone interviews with fifteen vocational education students. Two authors independently completed thematic analysis, classified themes according to the COM-B (Capability, Opportunity, Motivation, Behaviour) framework, and discussed disagreements until consensus was reached. Facilitators to uptake of online (e.g., desire to learn something new, cost-free, accessible) and telephone services (e.g., prefer to talk to provider, complements online support) primarily related to capability and opportunity. For telephone services, difficulty understanding accent/language was a capability-related barrier. Opportunity-related barriers for online and telephone services were preference for face-to-face interaction and lack of time, while preference for apps/online programs was a barrier for telephone services. For online and telephone services, not wanting to change SNAP behaviours was a motivation-related barrier and being able to change SNAP risk behaviours themselves was a motivation-related barrier for online services. Barriers and facilitators to online and telephone services are relevant for designing interventions vocational education students are more likely to use.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Oliver Schwengers ◽  
Lukas Jelonek ◽  
Marius Dieckmann ◽  
Sebastian Beyvers ◽  
Jochen Blom ◽  
...  

Command line annotation software tools have continuously gained popularity compared to centralized online services due to the worldwide increase of sequenced bacterial genomes. However, results of existing command line software pipelines heavily depend on taxon specific databases or sufficiently well annotated reference genomes. Here, we introduce Bakta, a new command line software tool for the robust, taxon-independent, thorough and nonetheless fast annotation of bacterial genomes. Bakta conducts a comprehensive annotation workflow including the detection of small proteins taking into account replicon metadata. The annotation of coding sequences is accelerated via an alignment-free sequence identification approach that in addition facilitates the precise assignment of public database cross references. Annotation results are exported in GFF3 and INSDC-compliant flat files as well as comprehensive JSON files facilitating automated downstream analysis. We compared Bakta to other rapid contemporary command line annotation software tools in both targeted and taxonomically broad benchmarks including isolates and metagenomic-assembled genomes. We demonstrated that Bakta outperforms other tools in terms of functional annotations, the assignment of functional categories and database cross-references whilst providing comparable wall clock runtimes. Bakta is implemented in Python 3 and runs on MacOS and Linux systems. It is freely available under a GPLv3 license at https://github.com/oschwengers/bakta. An accompanying web version is available at https://bakta.computational.bio.


Author(s):  
Felix Hohmeister ◽  
David Rückel
Keyword(s):  

ZusammenfassungSeit der Einführung des E‑Government Gesetzes ist das Thema in deutschen Verwaltungen omnipräsent. Die durch das Onlinezugangsgesetz (OZG) verpflichtende Bereitstellung von Online-Services erhöht den Druck auf die Verwaltungen zusätzlich. Ganzheitliche Veränderungen der Organisation sind nötig, um sich an den Bedarf der veränderten Umwelt anzupassen. Die Bürger*innen erwarten von den Verwaltungen Komfort in der Kommunikation und digitale Verarbeitung aller Anliegen wie im privaten oder beruflichen Umfeld. Eine Unterstützung bei der Umsetzung der Anforderungen des OZG bzw. des E-Governments können IT-Serviceprovider darstellen. Diese sind in der Lage, zentralisierte, skalierbare Soft- und Hardwarelösungen bereitzustellen und Defizite im vorhandenen Know-How sowie Ressourcenengpässe im öffentlichen Sektor zu kompensieren. Entscheidend dafür ist die rechtskonforme und zukunftssichere Auswahl eines IT-Serviceproviders. Dieser Forschungsbeitrag identifiziert und analysiert die für die Auswahl eines IT-Serviceproviders maßgeblichen kritischen Erfolgsfaktoren im Umfeld der gesetzlichen Unfallversicherungen Deutschlands. Aus Sicht der Wissenschaft trägt dieser Artikel somit zu einer breiteren Diskussion im Bereich Strategien zu e‑Government bzw. E‑Governance sowie Umsetzung des OZG bei. Für die Praxis wird aufgezeigt, wie ein strategischer Mehrwert aus der Neuausrichtung der gesetzlichen Unfallversicherungen hin zu einer modernen Verwaltung entstehen kann, um zukünftigen Entscheidungsträger*innen weitsichtige Entscheidungen zu ermöglichen und den Bürger*innen optimierte Services anbieten zu können.


2021 ◽  
Vol 39 (4) ◽  
pp. 1-34
Author(s):  
Cataldo Musto ◽  
Fedelucio Narducci ◽  
Marco Polignano ◽  
Marco De Gemmis ◽  
Pasquale Lops ◽  
...  

In this article, we present MyrrorBot , a personal digital assistant implementing a natural language interface that allows the users to: (i) access online services, such as music, video, news, and food recommendation s, in a personalized way, by exploiting a strategy for implicit user modeling called holistic user profiling ; (ii) query their own user models, to inspect the features encoded in their profiles and to increase their awareness of the personalization process. Basically, the system allows the users to formulate natural language requests related to their information needs. Such needs are roughly classified in two groups: quantified self-related needs (e.g., Did I sleep enough? Am I extrovert? ) and personalized access to online services (e.g., Play a song I like ). The intent recognition strategy implemented in the platform automatically identifies the intent expressed by the user and forwards the request to specific services and modules that generate an appropriate answer that fulfills the query. In the experimental evaluation, we evaluated both qualitative (users’ acceptance of the system, usability) as well as quantitative (time required to complete basic tasks, effectiveness of the personalization strategy) aspects of the system, and the results showed that MyrrorBot can improve the way people access online services and applications. This leads to a more effective interaction and paves the way for further development of our system.


2021 ◽  
pp. 145507252110307
Author(s):  
Virve Marionneau ◽  
Johanna Järvinen-Tassopoulos

Aims: During the COVID-19 pandemic, many treatment or help services for gambling were closed or moved online. At the same time, closures of gambling opportunities impacted gambling availability and practices. This study investigates gamblers’ and their concerned significant others’ (CSOs) experiences and views on treatment and help services during this exceptional time and perceptions on how to develop services further after the pandemic. Design: Three online questionnaires to elicit gambler and CSO experiences were conducted during the spring 2020 in Finland. In total, 847 respondents answered and shared experiences on how the situation had impacted their gambling behaviour and service needs, how service closures or the moving of services online had impacted them, and how they thought the prevention and treatment of gambling harms should be organised during and after COVID-19. Results: Changed gambling practices reduced overall service needs. Service closures had negative impacts, but online services were considered positively, as these provided a low-threshold option. Respondents also shared insights into how the service provision for gamblers should further be developed during and after COVID-19.


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