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Michal Zanáška ◽  
Daniel Lundin ◽  
Nils Brenning ◽  
Hao Du ◽  
Pavel Dvorak ◽  

Abstract The plasma potential at a typical substrate position is studied during the positive pulse of a bipolar high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (bipolar HiPIMS) discharge with a Cu target. The goal of the study is to identify suitable conditions for achieving ion acceleration independent on substrate grounding. We find that the time-evolution of the plasma potential during the positive pulse can be separated into several distinct phases, which are highly dependent on the discharge conditions. This includes exploring the influence of the working gas pressure (0.3 – 2 Pa), HiPIMS peak current (10 – 70 A corresponding to 0.5 – 3.5 A/cm2), HiPIMS pulse length (5 – 60 μs) and the amplitude of the positive voltage U+ applied during the positive pulse (0 – 150 V). At low enough pressure, high enough HiPIMS peak current and long enough HiPIMS pulse length, the plasma potential at a typical substrate position is seen to be close to 0 V for a certain time interval (denoted phase B) during the positive pulse. At the same time, spatial mapping of the plasma potential inside the magnetic trap region revealed an elevated value of the plasma potential during phase B. These two plasma potential characteristics are identified as suitable for achieving ion acceleration in the target region. Moreover, by investigating the target current and ion saturation current at the chamber walls, we describe a simple theory linking the value of the plasma potential profile to the ratio of the available target electron current and ion saturation current at the wall.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jennifer R. Deuis ◽  
Lotten Ragnarsson ◽  
Samuel D. Robinson ◽  
Zoltan Dekan ◽  
Lerena Chan ◽  

Venoms from cone snails and arachnids are a rich source of peptide modulators of voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels, however relatively few venom-derived peptides with activity at the mammalian NaV1.8 subtype have been isolated. Here, we describe the discovery and functional characterisation of β-theraphotoxin-Eo1a, a peptide from the venom of the Tanzanian black and olive baboon tarantula Encyocratella olivacea that modulates NaV1.8. Eo1a is a 37-residue peptide that increases NaV1.8 peak current (EC50 894 ± 146 nM) and causes a large hyperpolarising shift in both the voltage-dependence of activation (ΔV50–20.5 ± 1.2 mV) and steady-state fast inactivation (ΔV50–15.5 ± 1.8 mV). At a concentration of 10 μM, Eo1a has varying effects on the peak current and channel gating of NaV1.1–NaV1.7, although its activity is most pronounced at NaV1.8. Investigations into the binding site of Eo1a using NaV1.7/NaV1.8 chimeras revealed a critical contribution of the DII S3-S4 extracellular loop of NaV1.8 to toxin activity. Results from this work may form the basis for future studies that lead to the rational design of spider venom-derived peptides with improved potency and selectivity at NaV1.8.

2022 ◽  
Vol 905 ◽  
pp. 204-209
Nan Dong ◽  
Ke Cao ◽  
Chen Xi Si ◽  
Dan Zheng

In this work, core–shell structured nanocomposites consisting of Pd doped Ag@C were synthesized by impregnation–reduction method. Then, sensing electrodes were fabricated by modifying Pd/Ag@C core-shell nanoparticles on screen-printed electrodes (SPE) for electrochemical determination of bisphenol A (BPA). The composition and morphology of nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The electrochemical response characteristics of nanocomposites to BPA was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The results indicated that, compared with Ag@C and Pd/C, Pd/Ag@C nanocomposite shows greater catalytic activity to the oxidation of BPA due to the synergistic effect of Pd and Ag. Among the four synthesized Pd/Ag@C-x (x=1-4) nanomaterials, the Pd/Ag@C-3 exhibits the best sensing performance toward the sensitive detection of BPA. The linear range for BPA determination was from 8.0×10-8 M to 1.5×10-5M with a detection limit of 1.0×10-8 M. A less than 9% oxidation peak current change was observed on the determination of BPA using Pd/Ag@C-3/SPE when added different interfering species into the BPA solution. The oxidation peak current attenuation of BPA on Pd/Ag@C-3/SPE within five weeks was found to be less than 3.6%.

Yuezhong Luo ◽  
Zhongying Li

Abstract A voltammetric sensor made from a graphene and chitosan modified glassy carbon electrode (GR-CTS/GCE) was fabricated for accurate analysis of tyrosine (Tyr) in both food and biological samples. The surface morphology of the electrode and the properties of the electrode-electrolyte interface were determined by scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Compared with a bare GCE, the synergistic effect of GR and CTS is obvious. The peak current increases 35.6 times. The experimental conditions were optimized by second derivative linear sweep voltammetry (SDLSV) and Tyr was quantitatively analyzed on the electrode. The study shows that the oxidation peak current of Tyr obtained in 0.1 M pH 2.7 phosphate buffer is proportional to its concentration between 0.006-0.8 and 0.8-10.0 μM, with the low detection limit being 4.0 nM (signal/noise = 3). Excellent anti-interference ability was demonstrated by investigating the voltammetric response of Tyr in mixtures containing other biomolecules. In addition, the sensor exhibited good stability and repeatability. Through the detection of Tyr in milk and serum samples, the effectiveness of the sensor was studied, and the results were satisfactory.

Mechanika ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (6) ◽  
pp. 483-491
Jayaraj JEEVAMALAR ◽  
Sundaresan RAMABALAN ◽  

In order to achieve higher productivity and product quality, the investigation of machining parameters on Electrical Discharge Drilling and surface characteristic analysis are most critical for manufacturing industries. The intention of this article is to assess the impact on performance matrices including Material Removal Rate, and Surface Roughness of input factors of peak current, pulse-on and off duration while drilling with a rotary hollow copper tool on Inconel 718 under Tungsten powder suspended kerosene. Analysis of Variance has been implemented using MINITAB release 18 software to identify the most significant input factors. An Artificial Neural Network was used for validating the experimental results of the drilling process. The additional intention of this research is to discover the significance of influencing input parameters and analyze the quality surface of the workpiece were observed by microscope tests. The experimental results indicated that the peak current and pulse-on period have an effect on the performance of the drilling process considerably.

Suvranshu Pattanayak ◽  
Ananda Kumar Sahoo ◽  
Susanta Kumar Sahoo

Recent developments in manufacturing require holes on composite materials, especially on the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) with smooth hole periphery, low delamination, burr formation, taper, better circularity, and a high processing speed. Its non-conductive surface (epoxy layering) limits its machining through electrical discharge machining (EDM). To overcome this limitation, an aluminum fixture has been designed to guide the copper electrode of EDM for producing holes on a CFRP sheet of 1 mm thickness at low machining complexity, cost, time, delamination, burr in hole periphery and without affecting the material’s surface quality and performance. Even components with high geometrical complexity can also be drilled through this approach. Here, a multi-quality analysis called grey relational analysis is developed for examining the hole quality attributes, considering peak current, pulse on and off time, and flushing pressure as input parameters. This approach points out the optimum factor level setting and critical parameters (pulse-on time and peak current) that regulate the hole attributes (entrance and exit diameter, circularity, taper, material removal, and tool wear rate). An artificial neural network model has been designed and trained through experimental data sets. This model can also be adopted during the determination of hole quality attributes when the parameter settings are beyond a defined boundary, as the regression analysis value is very close to 1, and model performance is 4.99e-10. Peak current = 4 A, pulse-on time = 25 µs, pulse-off time=25 µs, and flushing pressure = 0.6 MPa were the optimum drilling parameters. In the initial hole, average burr length is 391.75 μm, and delamination of 539.3 μm is noticed. But burr formation is very negligible with delamination of 350.7 μm being observed with uniform circularity (0.979), low taper angle (−0.81354°), and TWR (0.000069 g/min) under optimum drilling conditions through this drilling approach.

2021 ◽  
Vol 31 (15) ◽  
Marija Glišić ◽  
Predrag Pejović

In this paper, constant-frequency peak-current control is analyzed focusing on the operation above the subharmonic threshold limit. The analysis is performed by mixing analytical and numerical approaches. Two levels of normalization are introduced: on the converter level and on the switching cell level, resulting in unified analysis regardless of the converter type. A function that maps the inductor current value at the beginning of a switching period to its value at the end of the switching period is derived. The analysis is performed by iterating this mapping, leading to information of the inductor current periodicity and the switching cell averaged output current. It is shown that before reaching chaotic state a converter passes through a sequence of bifurcations involving discontinuous conduction modes characterized by higher order periodicity. Boundaries of the region where the higher order discontinuous conduction modes occur are derived. Obtained dependence of the switching cell output current average on the operating parameters is used to derive a small signal model. The model parameters expose huge variations in the areas of deep subharmonic operation. The results are experimentally verified.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-34
Yang Song ◽  
Yunfei Xu ◽  
Zhihua Wang

Abstract Tertiary oil recovery technologies, exampled as alkaline/surfactant/polymer (ASP) flooding, can enhance oil recovery (EOR) as an important oil displacement technology noteworthy in the present oilfields. However, it is the fact that the produced emulsion droplets have strong electronegativity, which will lead to the destabilization of electric field and affect the dehydration effect in the process of electric dehydration. This paper innovatively proposed an efficient demulsification scheme, which uses platinum chloride (PAC) as a chemical regulator to control electric field destabilization through the charge neutralization mechanism, and then introduces demulsifier to promote oil-water separation. Furthermore, the dehydration temperature, power supply mode and electric field parameters are optimized so as to achieve superior dehydration effect of ASP flooding produced liquid. The results indicate that PAC as a chemical regulator by exerting charge neutralization and electrostatic adsorption mechanism could reduce the electronegativity of the emulsified system, decrease the peak current of dehydration, shorten the duration of peak current of dehydration, improve the response performance of the electric field, and increase dehydration rate in ASP flooding dehydration process. When the demulsifier dosage is 100 to 120 mg/L, using the composite separation process with the dehydration temperature of 45 to 50 °C for the thermochemical separation stage and 60 °C in the electrochemical dehydration stage and AC-DC composite electric field or pulse electric field can achieve better dehydration effect. The investigations in this study will provide support and basis for the efficient treatment of ASP flooding produced emulsion.

Marek Sebastian Simon ◽  
Oleg Mokrov ◽  
Rahul Sharma ◽  
Uwe Reisgen ◽  
Guokai Zhang ◽  

Abstract A first experimental validation of the EDACC (evaporation-determined arc-cathode coupling) model is performend by comparing the experimental and simulated current in the peak current phase of a pulsed GMAW (gas metal arc welding) process. For this, the EDACC model was extended to limit the cathode surface temperature to a realistic value of <2400K. The information on the plasma for the EDACC model was gathered from literature and extrapolated and extended according to qualitative reasoning. The information on the cathode surface of the EDACC model was derived from a steady-state simulation of the weld pool, using an averaging approach over time for the energy and current. The weld pool surface temperature was compared to pyrometric measurements, that were performed for this work, and the agreement was found to be fair. The observed agreement between the modelled and experimentally determined current was within 10%. As strong assumptions were made for the comparison, the validation cannot be considered as final, but the assumptions are thoroughly analyzed and discussed. However the critical link between surface temperature, plasma temperature and total current transmitted could be reconstructed.

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