Subsequent Performance
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2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Philip Furley ◽  
Florian Klingner ◽  
Daniel Memmert

AbstractThe present research attempted to extend prior research that showed that thin-slices of pre-performance nonverbal behavior (NVB) of professional darts players gives valid information to observers about subsequent performance tendencies. Specifically, we investigated what kind of nonverbal cues were associated with success and informed thin-slice ratings. Participants (N = 61) were first asked to estimate the performance of a random sample of videos showing the preparatory NVB of professional darts players (N = 47) either performing well (470 clips) or poorly (470 clips). Preparatory NVB was assessed via preparation times and Active Appearance Modeling using Noldus FaceReader. Results showed that observers could distinguish between good and poor performance based on thin-slices of preparatory NVB (p = 0.001, d = 0.87). Further analyses showed that facial expressions prior to poor performance showed more arousal (p = 0.011, ƞ2p = 0.10), sadness (p = 0.040, ƞ2p = 0.04), and anxiety (p = 0.009, ƞ2p = 0.09) and preparation times were shorter (p = 0.001, ƞ2p = 0.36) prior to poor performance than good performance. Lens model analyses showed preparation times (p = 0.001, rho = 0.18), neutral (p = 0.001, rho = 0.13), sad (rho = 0.12), and facial expressions of arousal (p = 0.001, rho = 0.11) to be correlated with observers’ performance ratings. Hence, preparation times and facial cues associated with a player’s level of arousal, neutrality, and sadness seem to be valid nonverbal cues that observers utilize to infer information about subsequent perceptual-motor performance.

Dániel Csala ◽  
Bence Márk Kovács ◽  
Péter Bali ◽  
Gábor Reha ◽  
Gergely Pánics

Abstract Objective The aim of the present study was to analyse the relationships between creatine kinase (CK) concentration, an indirect marker of muscle damage, and global positioning system (GPS)-derived metrics of a continuous two-week-long preseason training period in elite football. Design Twenty-one elite male professional soccer players were assessed during a 14-day preseason preparatory period. CK concentrations were determined each morning, and a GPS system was used to quantify the external load. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) model was established to determine the extent to which the external load parameter explained post-training CK levels. Results The GEE model found that higher numbers of decelerations (χ 2 = 7.83, P = 0.005) were most strongly associated with the post-training CK level. Decelerations and accelerations accounted for 62% and 11% of the post-training CK level, respectively, and considerable interindividual variability existed in the data. Conclusion The use of GPS to predict muscle damage could be of use to coaches and practitioners in prescribing recovery practices. Based on GPS data, more individualized strategies could be devised and could potentially result in better subsequent performance.

2021 ◽  
Bradley Krough ◽  
Paul Corbitt ◽  
Lucia Cazares ◽  
James Masdea ◽  
David Scadden

Abstract Modern drill bits designs have become more efficient using static modelling, and in more advanced cases, time-based dynamic modelling. These methods have created improved cutting structures that fail rock more effectively, however, at-bit vibrations are difficult to estimate because of the high-frequency nature of the vibration and its proximity to typical vibration sensors. In conventional applications, vibration is not measured near the bit. A solution to capture this data on conventional assemblies and use the data in an actual bit design is presented in this paper with subsequent performance and vibration results. The relative efficiency, bit dull grading, and vibration performance are compared across these designs and explored in depth. This new generation of vibration tool fits inside the bit pin, enabling accurate at-bit vibration measurements by a suite of sensors. The tool includes a tri-axis accelerometer that measures lateral and axial acceleration, and gyro sensors to measure rpm and torsional acceleration. Together, these outputs combine with the rig surface data to have time- and depth-based vibration data in the context of the run. When used to quantify the dynamic model, this represents a modelling calibration that improves bit design performance. The lower-vibration environment created by the new bit design enables the operator to run increased parameters with a lower likelihood for measurement-while-drilling (MWD) failures, motor failures, and premature catastrophic bit failures leading to faster run times and less nonproductive time (NPT). These results also prove that meaningful bit design changes can take place more frequently than through traditional means, translating value to the operator in the form more successful BHA improvements and less drilling time. Using the new in-bit sensor in a baseline design to start the design cycle, a baseline mechanical specific energy (MSE) and vibration model was developed foot-by-foot. The worst areas of vibration were seen as the bit became dull in the lower section of the drilling interval. A new dull bit model was created in parallel to capture this section of data. A new design was proposed to Whiting Petroleum to improve both sharp and dull efficiency and vibration, and subsequently run with sensor in an offset well.

電腦學刊 ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 32 (4) ◽  
pp. 057-066
Min-Yuh Day Min-Yuh Day ◽  
Paoyu Huang Min-Yuh Day ◽  
Yensen Ni Paoyu Huang

2021 ◽  
pp. 016237372110304
Di Xu ◽  
Florence Xiaotao Ran

Using data with detailed instructor employment information from a state college system, this study examines disciplinary variations in the characteristics and effects of non-tenure-track faculty hired through temporary and long-term employment. We identify substantial differences in demographic and employment characteristics between the two types of non-tenure-line faculty, where the differences are most pronounced in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and health-related fields (STEM) at 4-year colleges. Using an instrumental variables strategy to address student sorting, our analyses indicate that taking introductory courses with temporary adjuncts reduces subsequent interest, and the effects are particularly large in STEM fields at 4-year colleges. Long-term non-tenure faculty are generally comparable with tenure-track faculty in student subsequent interest, but tenure-track faculty are associated with better subsequent performance in a handful of fields.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
David G. Behm ◽  
Tori B. Carter

Performance is dependent upon both physical and psychological factors. As a social animal, human behaviors are influenced by interactions with others. Empathy is based on social interactions and is defined as the understanding, awareness of, sensitivity to, and ability to vicariously experience the feelings, thoughts, and experience of another. There are few investigations on the influence of empathy in relation to individual and team performance and activity. There is some initial research suggesting that observing sad photos or videos or fatiguing exercise can adversely affect subsequent performance. Possible mechanisms may be attributed to mirror neurons or the affordance competition hypothesis. The relative degree of empathetic influences can be modulated by sex, age, personal familiarity, cultures and other factors. With the limited research in sport and exercise science, there is a need for more research to investigate the role of empathy on individual and team performances. The objective of this topical review was to examine the possible effects of empathy on physical performance, the potential underlying mechanisms and influencing variables moderating the association between empathy and performance?

Susana Pérez Castillejo

Abstract This study examines the role of prior processing (understood as L2 use earlier in discourse) in moderating the contributions of foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA) and proficiency to L2 utterance fluency. Two groups with comparable FLCA and proficiency scores performed the same narrative task. One group completed it in the absence of any other L2 task, and one group completed it immediately after responding to a similar but not identical prompt. The participants’ speech was analyzed using breakdown, speed, and repair fluency measures. Results showed that prior processing can reduce FLCA’s interference during L2 production. Unexpectedly, prior processing did not produce significant fluency gains associated with lexical retrieval and syntactic encoding. Instead, the patterns of variation revealed that more attention was paid to message conceptualization. This finding implies that prior processing can moderate FLCA’s role in L2 production because it alters the way attentional resources are allocated in subsequent performance.

2021 ◽  
Shu Wang ◽  
Ragan M. Callaway

Abstract Aims Temporally heterogeneous environments have crucial influences on plant survival and growth, leading to greater variations in plasticity, but direct experimental evidence is rare. Our objective was to investigate how early experience with temporally heterogeneous water conditions may affect the subsequent performance and plasticity of plants in response to water availability.Methods We subjected eight plant species from xeric, mesic or hydric habitats, four exotic and four native to North America, to initial exposure to either an alternating drought and inundation treatment (Ehet, heterogeneous experience) or a consistently moderate water supply (Ehom, homogeneous experience), and to a second round of drought, moderate watering or inundation treatments.Results Compared to Ehom, Ehet increased the final total mass across all species, but did not affect mortality. For species in groups, Ehet relative to Ehom decreased the initial total mass of native species, but increased the mass of exotic species, but natives had greater late growth than exotics after Ehet. Ehet also increased the total mass and late growth of mesic species more than xeric and hydric species.Conclusions Our findings suggest that previous exposure to temporal heterogeneity in water supply may be not beneficial immediately, but can be beneficial for plant late growth and plastic responses under water stress. Species from different habitats, and exotics vs. natives showed contrasting abilities to exploit such benefits from early heterogeneous experience, regardless of their final performance. This revealed the importance of modulating future plastic responses, or “metaplasticity”.

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