Subsequent Performance
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2021 ◽  
pp. 016237372110304
Di Xu ◽  
Florence Xiaotao Ran

Using data with detailed instructor employment information from a state college system, this study examines disciplinary variations in the characteristics and effects of non-tenure-track faculty hired through temporary and long-term employment. We identify substantial differences in demographic and employment characteristics between the two types of non-tenure-line faculty, where the differences are most pronounced in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and health-related fields (STEM) at 4-year colleges. Using an instrumental variables strategy to address student sorting, our analyses indicate that taking introductory courses with temporary adjuncts reduces subsequent interest, and the effects are particularly large in STEM fields at 4-year colleges. Long-term non-tenure faculty are generally comparable with tenure-track faculty in student subsequent interest, but tenure-track faculty are associated with better subsequent performance in a handful of fields.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
David G. Behm ◽  
Tori B. Carter

Performance is dependent upon both physical and psychological factors. As a social animal, human behaviors are influenced by interactions with others. Empathy is based on social interactions and is defined as the understanding, awareness of, sensitivity to, and ability to vicariously experience the feelings, thoughts, and experience of another. There are few investigations on the influence of empathy in relation to individual and team performance and activity. There is some initial research suggesting that observing sad photos or videos or fatiguing exercise can adversely affect subsequent performance. Possible mechanisms may be attributed to mirror neurons or the affordance competition hypothesis. The relative degree of empathetic influences can be modulated by sex, age, personal familiarity, cultures and other factors. With the limited research in sport and exercise science, there is a need for more research to investigate the role of empathy on individual and team performances. The objective of this topical review was to examine the possible effects of empathy on physical performance, the potential underlying mechanisms and influencing variables moderating the association between empathy and performance?

Susana Pérez Castillejo

Abstract This study examines the role of prior processing (understood as L2 use earlier in discourse) in moderating the contributions of foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA) and proficiency to L2 utterance fluency. Two groups with comparable FLCA and proficiency scores performed the same narrative task. One group completed it in the absence of any other L2 task, and one group completed it immediately after responding to a similar but not identical prompt. The participants’ speech was analyzed using breakdown, speed, and repair fluency measures. Results showed that prior processing can reduce FLCA’s interference during L2 production. Unexpectedly, prior processing did not produce significant fluency gains associated with lexical retrieval and syntactic encoding. Instead, the patterns of variation revealed that more attention was paid to message conceptualization. This finding implies that prior processing can moderate FLCA’s role in L2 production because it alters the way attentional resources are allocated in subsequent performance.

2021 ◽  
Shu Wang ◽  
Ragan M. Callaway

Abstract Aims Temporally heterogeneous environments have crucial influences on plant survival and growth, leading to greater variations in plasticity, but direct experimental evidence is rare. Our objective was to investigate how early experience with temporally heterogeneous water conditions may affect the subsequent performance and plasticity of plants in response to water availability.Methods We subjected eight plant species from xeric, mesic or hydric habitats, four exotic and four native to North America, to initial exposure to either an alternating drought and inundation treatment (Ehet, heterogeneous experience) or a consistently moderate water supply (Ehom, homogeneous experience), and to a second round of drought, moderate watering or inundation treatments.Results Compared to Ehom, Ehet increased the final total mass across all species, but did not affect mortality. For species in groups, Ehet relative to Ehom decreased the initial total mass of native species, but increased the mass of exotic species, but natives had greater late growth than exotics after Ehet. Ehet also increased the total mass and late growth of mesic species more than xeric and hydric species.Conclusions Our findings suggest that previous exposure to temporal heterogeneity in water supply may be not beneficial immediately, but can be beneficial for plant late growth and plastic responses under water stress. Species from different habitats, and exotics vs. natives showed contrasting abilities to exploit such benefits from early heterogeneous experience, regardless of their final performance. This revealed the importance of modulating future plastic responses, or “metaplasticity”.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (3) ◽  
pp. 251524592110275
Emily R. Fyfe ◽  
Joshua R. de Leeuw ◽  
Paulo F. Carvalho ◽  
Robert L. Goldstone ◽  
Janelle Sherman ◽  

Psychology researchers have long attempted to identify educational practices that improve student learning. However, experimental research on these practices is often conducted in laboratory contexts or in a single course, which threatens the external validity of the results. In this article, we establish an experimental paradigm for evaluating the benefits of recommended practices across a variety of authentic educational contexts—a model we call ManyClasses. The core feature is that researchers examine the same research question and measure the same experimental effect across many classes spanning a range of topics, institutions, teacher implementations, and student populations. We report the first ManyClasses study, in which we examined how the timing of feedback on class assignments, either immediate or delayed by a few days, affected subsequent performance on class assessments. Across 38 classes, the overall estimate for the effect of feedback timing was 0.002 (95% highest density interval = [−0.05, 0.05]), which indicates that there was no effect of immediate feedback compared with delayed feedback on student learning that generalizes across classes. Furthermore, there were no credibly nonzero effects for 40 preregistered moderators related to class-level and student-level characteristics. Yet our results provide hints that in certain kinds of classes, which were undersampled in the current study, there may be modest advantages for delayed feedback. More broadly, these findings provide insights regarding the feasibility of conducting within-class randomized experiments across a range of naturally occurring learning environments.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Lu Lu ◽  
Yang Zhou ◽  
Chenxiao Wang ◽  
Qingpu Zhang

As a disruptive innovation on the traditional payment mode, the 3rd-party online payment has been involved in disruptive innovations featuring contextualized and modernized characteristics, but a theoretical summary is urgently needed for the dominant design of these disruptive innovations. Therefore, an in-depth case study is done with Alipay and PayPal as the subject, and it comes to elaborate four key aspects involved in the dominant design of disruptive innovations of the 3rd-party online payment. Namely, adopt new innovative derivations, create new product attributes, construct new business models, and process subsequent performance improvements. In addition, the factors that differ from the traditional disruptive innovations are also spotted, including two innovative driving forces, two new product features, and four business modes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
James Kenneth Bowman ◽  
R. Thomas Boone ◽  
Scott Goldman ◽  
Alex Auerbach

The focus on quantifiable data in sport performance has led to incremental advantages in baseball and has played an important role in the development of new hitting, pitching, fielding, and coaching strategies. Recently, researchers and team representatives have considered the impact of additional factors in baseball, including cognitive functioning. In this study, predictive validity for the Athletic Intelligence Quotient (AIQ) was examined vis-à-vis performance outcomes in professional baseball. Specifically, AIQ scores were obtained from 149 Minor League Baseball (MiLB) players prior to the 2014 baseball season and their subsequent performance was assessed through traditional and newly emphasized baseball statistics. Using hierarchical multiple regression, it was demonstrated that the AIQ predicted statistically significant relationships with hitting and pitching statistics, after controlling for other variables. Given the recent impact of analytics in professional sports, the potential importance of the AIQ in the selection and coaching process was discussed.

2021 ◽  
M.E. Prado ◽  
J. Wilkerson ◽  
L.G. Schneider ◽  
P.D. Krawczel

2021 ◽  
David Harris ◽  
Samuel James Vine ◽  
Michael Eysenck ◽  
Mark Wilson

Objectives: In the context of Grand Slam tennis, we sought to examine how situational pressure and prior errors can disrupt subsequent performance in elite performers. Methods: A retrospective analysis of more than 650,000 points across 12 Grand Slam tennis tournaments from 2016-2019 was conducted to identify pressurised in-game moments and unforced errors. A scoring system was used to index situational pressure based on the current match situation (e.g., break points, stage of the match) on a point-by-point basis. The occurrence of performance errors was identified based on double faults and unforced errors, as instances of controllable mistakes. Results: A mixed effects logistic regression model revealed that an increase in the pressure index (a 1-5 score) significantly increased the probability of a performance error (ps<.001), as did an error on the preceding point (OR=1.2, 95%CI [1.17, 1.23], p<.001). A multiplicative effect of pressure and prior errors also emerged, as the negative impact of prior errors on performance was greater when situational pressure was already high, in line with the predictions of Attentional Control Theory: Sport (ACTS). Analyses of the distribution of winners and unforced errors across individual players revealed that winning players were as susceptible to pressure and prior errors as losing players. Conclusions: These findings extend our understanding of how ongoing feedback from prior mistakes may further exacerbate the effects of pressure on performance.

2021 ◽  
Vol 99 (Supplement_2) ◽  
pp. 29-29
Doug R Tolleson ◽  
Monte M Rouquette ◽  
Kelli Norman ◽  
Charles R Long

Abstract Beef cows in the southeastern United States are likely maintained on pasture during mid-gestation, a critical period for fetal development of traits important to performance of the growing/finishing calf. Climate projections are for increased warming with highly variable precipitation in this region. Forage quantity and quality are affected by temperature and precipitation. Thus, in order to obtain a better understanding of downstream effects from cow nutrition during gestation on subsequent performance of growing cattle, we analyzed 579 records of crossbred steers and heifers born (fall and winter) to cows grazing typical forages in Overton, Texas. Cows were involved in a long-term stocking rate study and were assigned to either high (H; 4 cow/calf ha-1) or low (L; 2 cow/calf ha-1) treatment groups. Cow body condition scores (BCS; 1–9) were collected at breeding and weaning. Calves produced were pastured from weaning to approximately 1 to 1.5 yr of age, then shipped to a commercial feedlot and subsequently slaughtered at a commercial facility. Calf data included birth weight, weaning weight (~240 d), yearling weight, on-feed weight, final pre-harvest weight, hot carcass weight (all weights in kg), dressing percentage, marbling score, yield grade, backfat thickness (cm), ribeye area (cm2), and kidney-pelvic-heart fat (%). Differences (P < 0.05) between treatment groups were determined by a general linear model in SAS with stocking rate as the main effect. Mean separation was accomplished using Tukey’s test. Cow BCS (H; 4.27 ± 0.06 vs L; 5.64 ± 0.07, P < 0.0001), final pre-harvest weight (H; 594.80 ± 6.18 kg vs L; 619.85 ± 6.12 kg, < 0.005), hot carcass weight (H; 366.60 ± 3.89 kg vs L; 383.17 ± 3.74, P < 0.003), and ribeye area (H; 90.52 ± 0.90 cm2 vs L; 93.74 ± 1.03 cm2, P < 0.03) were all lower in H than L. Calf weaning weight followed a similar trend (H; 289.24 ± 2.58 kg vs L; 296.56 ± 3.08 kg, P < 0.07). Diminished nutritional provision to the fetus during mid-gestation was apparently manifest as epigenetic effects on offspring performance.

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