inflammatory reactions
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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 792
Jan Korbecki ◽  
Katarzyna Barczak ◽  
Izabela Gutowska ◽  
Dariusz Chlubek ◽  
Irena Baranowska-Bosiacka

CXCL1 is one of the most important chemokines, part of a group of chemotactic cytokines involved in the development of many inflammatory diseases. It activates CXCR2 and, at high levels, CXCR1. The expression of CXCL1 is elevated in inflammatory reactions and also has important functions in physiology, including the induction of angiogenesis and recruitment of neutrophils. Due to a lack of reviews that precisely describe the regulation of CXCL1 expression and function, in this paper, we present the mechanisms of CXCL1 expression regulation with a special focus on cancer. We concentrate on the regulation of CXCL1 expression through the regulation of CXCL1 transcription and mRNA stability, including the involvement of NF-κB, p53, the effect of miRNAs and cytokines such as IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-17, TGF-β and TNF-α. We also describe the mechanisms regulating CXCL1 activity in the extracellular space, including proteolytic processing, CXCL1 dimerization and the influence of the ACKR1/DARC receptor on CXCL1 localization. Finally, we explain the role of CXCL1 in cancer and possible therapeutic approaches directed against this chemokine.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Xiaoqiang Shi ◽  
Yunhua Wu ◽  
Enmeng Li ◽  
Li Zhang ◽  
Yanfei Ma ◽  

Background. Many attempts have been made to inhibit the formation of postoperative intraperitoneal adhesions, but the results have been discouraging. Therefore, the identification of effective preventative measures or treatments is of great importance. In this study, the substantial potential of naringin (NG) to reduce peritoneal adhesions was validated in a rat model. Materials and Methods. A rat peritoneal adhesion model was established by abrasion of the cecum and its opposite intraperitoneal region under aseptic surgical conditions. After the operation, three groups of NG-treated rats were given 2 mL of NG by gavage at different concentrations (40, 60, or 80 mg/kg/d). The sham, control, and hyaluronan (HA) groups were given equal volumes of normal saline daily. On the 8th day, all rats were sacrificed 30 min after the administration of an activated carbon solution (10 mL/kg) by oral gavage. Intraperitoneal adhesion formation was adequately evaluated by necropsy, hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, Sirius red staining, immunofluorescence staining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) probes. The gastrointestinal dynamics of the rats were assessed on the basis of a small intestinal charcoal powder propulsion test and the detection of motilin and gastrin levels in serum. Results. Intraperitoneal adhesions were markedly reduced in the group of rats receiving high-dose NG. Compared with the control group, the high-dose NG group showed clear reductions in inflammatory reactions, oxidative stress, collagen deposition, and fibroblast formation in the adhesion tissue and enhanced gastrointestinal dynamics ( P  < 0.05). Conclusion. NG alleviated the severity of intraperitoneal adhesions in a rat model by reducing inflammation, oxidative stress, collagen deposition, and fibroblast formation, highlighting the potential of NG as a drug candidate to prevent postoperative peritoneal adhesion formation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Apoorva Sharma ◽  
Kavitha Sanjeev ◽  
Vinola M. J. Selvanathan ◽  
Mahalaxmi Sekar ◽  
Nikhil Harikrishnan

Abstract Background Freshly mixed root canal sealers when proximate the periapical tissues, trigger varying degrees of cytotoxicity/inflammatory reactions. Simvastatin, a class of the drug statin, is a widely used cholesterol-lowering agent with additional anti-inflammatory activities. This study assessed the effects of simvastatin on cytotoxicity and the release of IL-6 (Interleukin-6) production when incorporated in zinc oxide eugenol and methacrylate resin-based sealers. Methods Experimental groups consisted of conventional zinc oxide eugenol and methacrylate based-EndoREZ sealers (ZE & ER respectively) and 0.5 mg/mL simvastatin incorporated sealers (ZES & ERS). L929 mouse fibroblast cells were exposed to freshly mixed experimental sealers and evaluated for cytotoxicity (MTT assay) and inflammation levels (inflammatory marker IL-6 for ELISA) at various time intervals (0h, 24h and 7th day). The values were compared to the cell control (CC; L929 cells alone) and solvent control (SC; L929 cells + DMSO) groups. All the experiments were conducted in triplicates and subjected to statistical analysis using IBM SPSS Statistics software. Non parametric tests were conducted using Kruskal-Wallis and Friedman tests for inter-group and intra-group comparisons respectively. Pairwise comparison was conducted by post hoc Dunn test followed by Bonferroni correction. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results All the experimental groups (ZE, ER, ZES, ERS) exhibited varying degree of cytotoxicity and IL-6 expression compared to the control groups CC and SC. The cell viability for ZE and ER decreased on day 7 as compared to 24 h. ZES and ERS had higher viable cells (75.93% & 79.90%) compared to ZE and ER (54.39% & 57.84%) at all time periods. Increased expression of IL-6 was observed in ZE & ER (25.49 pg/mL & 23.14 pg/mL) when compared to simvastatin incorporated ZE & ER (ZES-12.70 pg/mL & ERS-14.68 pg/mL) at all time periods. Highest level of cytotoxicity and inflammation was observed in ZE compared to all the other groups on day 7. Conclusions Addition of 0.5 mg/mL of simvastatin to the sealers (ZES and ERS) decreased the cytotoxicity in the freshly mixed state and reduces their inflammatory effect.

2022 ◽  
pp. 088307382110698
Mark Hilado ◽  
Michelle Banh ◽  
James Homans ◽  
Arthur Partikian

Similar to the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease, SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection has been shown to be associated with dysregulated and persistent inflammatory reactions and production of some antibodies. We report 3 pediatric patients found to have serum SARS-CoV-2 antibodies who presented with neurologic findings suggestive of postinfectious autoimmune-mediated encephalitis. All 3 cases showed lymphocytic pleocytosis on cerebrospinal fluid studies and marked improvement in neurologic symptoms after high-dose intravenous corticosteroids. The manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the pediatric population are still an evolving area of study, and these cases suggest autoimmune-mediated encephalitis as yet another SARS-CoV-2 related complication.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Andra Banete ◽  
Julia Barilo ◽  
Reese Whittaker ◽  
Sameh Basta

Macrophages (Mφ) are innate immune cells with a variety of functional phenotypes depending on the cytokine microenvironment they reside in. Mφ exhibit distinct activation patterns that are found within a wide array of activation states ranging from the originally discovered classical pro-inflammatory (M1) to the anti-inflammatory (M2) with their multi-facades. M1 cells are induced by IFNγ + LPS, while M2 are further subdivided into M2a (IL-4), M2b (Immune Complex) and M2c (IL-10) based on their inducing stimuli. Not surprisingly, Mφ activation influences the outcome of viral infections as they produce cytokines that in turn activate cells of the adaptive immune system. Generally, activated M1 cells tend to restrict viral replication, however, influenza and HIV exploit inflammation to support their replication. Moreover, M2a polarization inhibits HIV replication at the post-integration level, while HCMV encoded hrIL-10 suppresses inflammatory reactions by facilitating M2c formation. Additionally, viruses such as LCMV and Lassa Virus directly suppress Mφ activation leading to viral chronicity. Here we review how Mφ activation affects viral infection and the strategies by which viruses manipulate Mφ polarization to benefit their own fitness. An understanding of these mechanisms is important for the development of novel immunotherapies that can sway Mφ phenotype to inhibit viral replication.

Tamim Ahsan ◽  
Abu Ashfaqur Sajib

Abstract Background Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA) is an important cytokine that influences multiple biological processes. It is one of the key mediators of acute and chronic systemic inflammatory reactions and plays a central role in several autoimmune diseases. A number of approved monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are widely used to subside these autoimmune diseases. However, there is a high rate of non-responsiveness to treatments with these mAbs. Therefore, it is important to be able to predict responses of the patients in an individualistic manner to these therapeutic antibodies before administration. In the present study, we used in silico tools to explore the effects of missense variants in the respective epitopes of four therapeutic anti-TNFA mAbs—adalimumab (ADA), certolizumab pegol (CZP), golimumab (GLM), and infliximab (IFX)—on their interactions with TNFA. Results The binding affinities of CZP and ADA to corresponding epitopes appear to be reduced by four (TNFAR131Q, TNFAE135G, TNFAR138Q, and TNFAR138W) and two (TNFAG66C and TNFAG66S) variants, respectively. The binding of GLM and IFX appears to be affected by TNFAR141S and TNFAR138W, respectively. TNFAG66C and TNFAG66S may be associated with autoimmune diseases, whereas TNFAE135G, TNFAR138W, and TNFAR141S may be pathogenic per se. Conclusion These variants may contribute to the observed inter-individual variability in response to anti-TNFA mAbs treatments and be used as markers to predict responses, and thus optimize therapeutic benefits to the patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Rui Gui ◽  
Quanjiao Chen

Viral infection usually leads to cell death. Moderate cell death is a protective innate immune response. By contrast, excessive, uncontrolled cell death causes tissue destruction, cytokine storm, or even host death. Thus, the struggle between the host and virus determines whether the host survives. Influenza A virus (IAV) infection in humans can lead to unbridled hyper-inflammatory reactions and cause serious illnesses and even death. A full understanding of the molecular mechanisms and regulatory networks through which IAVs induce cell death could facilitate the development of more effective antiviral treatments. In this review, we discuss current progress in research on cell death induced by IAV infection and evaluate the role of cell death in IAV replication and disease prognosis.

BioChem ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 27-43
Caitlin Doughty ◽  
Louise Oppermann ◽  
Niels-Ulrik Hartmann ◽  
Stephan Dreschers ◽  
Christian Gille ◽  

Infection and sepsis remain among the leading causes of neonatal mortality. The susceptibility of newborns to infection can be attributed to their immature immune system. Regarding immune response, monocytes represent a numerically minor population of leukocytes. However, they contribute to a variety of immunological demands, such as continuous replenishment of resident macrophages under non-infectious conditions and migration to inflamed sites where they neutralize pathogens and secrete cytokines. Further functions include the presentation of antigens and T-cell activation. Cytokines coordinate host responses to bacterial and viral infections and orchestrate ongoing physiological signaling between cells of non-immune tissues. A critical event is the skewing of the cytokine repertoire to achieve a resolution of infection. In this regard, monocytes may hold a key position as deciders in addition to their phagocytic activity, securing the extinction of pathogens to prevent broader organ damage by toxins and pro-inflammatory reactions. Neonatal monocytes undergo various regulatory and metabolic changes. Thus, they are thought to be vulnerable in anticipating pro-inflammatory conditions and cause severe progressions which increase the risk of developing sepsis. Furthermore, clinical studies have shown that exposure to inflammation puts neonates at a high risk for adverse pulmonary, immunological and other organ developments, which may result in multiorgan disease. This review discusses significant functions and impairments of neonatal monocytes that are decisive for the outcome of bacterial infections.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Marie-Anne Morren ◽  
Eric Legius ◽  
Fabienne Giuliano ◽  
Smail Hadj-Rabia ◽  
Daniel Hohl ◽  

Genodermatoses are rare inherited skin diseases that frequently affect other organs. They often have marked effects on wellbeing and may cause early death. Progress in molecular genetics and translational research has unravelled many underlying pathological mechanisms, and in several disorders with high unmet need, has opened the way for the introduction of innovative treatments. One approach is to intervene where cell-signaling pathways are dysregulated, in the case of overactive pathways by the use of selective inhibitors, or when the activity of an essential factor is decreased by augmenting a molecular component to correct disequilibrium in the pathway. Where inflammatory reactions have been induced by a genetically altered protein, another possible approach is to suppress the inflammation directly. Depending on the nature of the genodermatosis, the implicated protein or even on the particular mutation, to correct the consequences or the genetic defect, may require a highly personalised stratagem. Repurposed drugs, can be used to bring about a “read through” strategy especially where the genetic defect induces premature termination codons. Sometimes the defective protein can be replaced by a normal functioning one. Cell therapies with allogeneic normal keratinocytes or fibroblasts may restore the integrity of diseased skin and allogeneic bone marrow or mesenchymal cells may additionally rescue other affected organs. Genetic engineering is expanding rapidly. The insertion of a normal functioning gene into cells of the recipient is since long explored. More recently, genome editing, allows reframing, insertion or deletion of exons or disruption of aberrantly functioning genes. There are now several examples where these stratagems are being explored in the (pre)clinical phase of therapeutic trial programmes. Another stratagem, designed to reduce the severity of a given disease involves the use of RNAi to attenuate expression of a harmful protein by decreasing abundance of the cognate transcript. Most of these strategies are short-lasting and will thus require intermittent life-long administration. In contrast, insertion of healthy copies of the relevant gene or editing the disease locus in the genome to correct harmful mutations in stem cells is more likely to induce a permanent cure. Here we discuss the potential advantages and drawbacks of applying these technologies in patients with these genetic conditions. Given the severity of many genodermatoses, prevention of transmission to future generations remains an important goal including offering reproductive choices, such as preimplantation genetic testing, which can allow selection of an unaffected embryo for transfer to the uterus.

2022 ◽  
Seong Ryoung Kim ◽  
Keon Mo Lee ◽  
Jin Hong Kim ◽  
Young Jin Choi ◽  
Han Ick Park ◽  

Abstract Background: Magnesium alloys have been receiving much attention for use in biodegradable metal implants because of their excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility. However, their rapid breakdown and low bioactivity can cause the implant to lose mechanical integrity before the bone is completely healed. Moreover, hydrogen gas released during degradation can significantly delay the tissue regeneration process. To solve the instability of magnesium alloys, Zn and Ca can be added to improve the mechanical properties and biocompatibility. One other way to improve the mechanical properties of Mg is plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO), which provides a dense, thick ceramic-like coating on the Mg surface. In this study, high-purity Mg was selected as the control, and Mg-1wt%Zn-0.1wt%Ca alloy and PEO-treated Mg-1wt%Zn-0.1wt%Ca alloy were selected as the test materials; the results of radiographic and histological analyses of their biocompatibility are reported herein. Materials and method: Nineteen New Zealand white rabbits were used in the study. Rod-bars (Ø2.7x13.6mm) were placed on both paravertebral muscles, and cannulated screws (Ø2.7x10mm) were placed on both femur condyle notches. Each animal was implanted in all four sites. X-rays were taken at 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks, micro-CT, and live-CT were taken at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. At weeks 4, 8, and 12, individuals representing each group were selected and sacrificed to prepare specimens for histopathological examination. Result: The results confirm that in vivo, Mg-1wt%Zn-0.1wt%Ca alloy had higher corrosion resistance than high-purity Mg and safely degraded over time without causing possible side effects (foreign body or inflammatory reactions, etc.). In addition, PEO treatment of Mg-1wt%Zn-0.1wt%Ca alloy had a positive effect on fracture recovery by increasing the bonding area with bone. Conclusion: Our results suggest that PEO treatment of Mg-1wt%Zn-0.1wt%Ca alloy can be a promising biomaterials in the field of various clinical situations such as orthopedic and maxillofacial surgerys.

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