fat soluble vitamins
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Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 199
Adriana Di Di Trana ◽  
Ambra Rita Di Di Rosa ◽  
Margherita Addis ◽  
Myriam Fiori ◽  
Antonino Di Di Grigoli ◽  

Five natural historic cheeses of Southern Italy were investigated—Caciocavallo Palermitano (CP), Casizolu del Montiferru (CdM), Vastedda della Valle del Belìce (VVB), Pecorino Siciliano (PS), and Caprino Nicastrese (CN)—which are produced with raw milk and with traditional techniques and tools, from autochthonous breeds reared under an extensive system. The effects of the month of production on gross composition, MUFA, PUFA, PUFA-ω6, PUFA-ω3, α-tocopherol, retinol, cholesterol, TPC, TEAC, and GHIC were evaluated. In CP, CLA, TPC, and GHIC were higher in April than in February. CdM showed higher values in terms of fat, saturated fatty acids, PUFA-ω3, α-tocopherol, TEAC, and GHIC in May than in February and September, while low values in terms of protein, moisture, and CLA were found. In VVB, MUFA, PUFA-ω6, and α-tocopherol increased in June compared with April; conversely, protein, FRAP, and TEAC were higher in April. In PS, protein, CLA, PUFA, PUFA-ω3, α-tocopherol, and GHIC increased in May compared with January; on the contrary, moisture, NaCl, and TEAC showed high values in January. CN showed higher values in terms of PUFA, PUFA-ω6, PUFA-ω3, TPC, TEAC, and GHIC in April and June compared with January. It is shown that each cheese is unique and closely linked to the production area. Cheeses produced in the spring months showed a high nutritional quality due to the greatest presence of healthy compounds originating from an extensive feeding system.

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 ◽  
Beatriz Polisel Mazzoni ◽  
Bruna Voltani Lessa ◽  
Patricia Zamberlan

ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the metabolic and nutritional repercussions of chronic liver disease (CLD), proposing strategies that optimize nutritional therapy in the pre- and post-liver transplantation (LT) period, in order to promote favorable clinical outcomes and adequate growth and development, respectively. Data sources: Bibliographic search in the PubMed, Lilacs and SciELO databases of the last 12 years, in English and Portuguese; target population: children from early childhood to adolescence; keywords in Portuguese and their correlates in English: “Liver Transplant,” “Biliary Atresia,” “Nutrition Therapy,” “Nutritional Status,” and “Child”; in addition to Boolean logics “and” and “or,” and the manual search of articles. Data synthesis: Malnutrition in children with CLD is a very common condition and an important risk factor for morbidity and mortality. There is an increase in energy and protein demand, as well as difficulties in the absorption of carbohydrates, lipids and micronutrients such as fat-soluble vitamins and some minerals. An increase in the supply of energy, carbohydrates and proteins and micronutrients, especially fat-soluble vitamins, iron, zinc and calcium, is suggested, except in cases of hepatic encephalopathy (this restriction is indicated for a short period). Conclusions: Based on metabolic changes and anthropometric and body composition monitoring, a treatment plan should be developed, following the nutritional recommendations available, in order to minimize the negative impact of malnutrition on clinical outcomes during and after LT.

2022 ◽  
pp. 329-364
Saptadip Samanta

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (11) ◽  
pp. 8-12
M. A. Shende ◽  
S. N. Kadam ◽  
M. B. Mokal ◽  
M. P. Balvir

Background: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM), among children below five years of age is global health problem contributing to childhood morbidity, mortality and remains a major embarrassment to optimal human capital development in India. Objectives: Study aim was to accesses fat soluble vitamins deficiencies among children with SAM and outcomes after treatments with F-75/F-100 plus vitamins mix. Methods: The study was prospective observational conducted in the nutritional rehabilitation center (NRC) at district general hospital for 6 months. Anthropometric measurements were taken to determine their nutritional status. Results: 100 patients of NRC were enrolled in the study. Sixty nine percent (69) patients had weight/height (WT/HT) Z score<−3 standard deviation (3 SD), 16 % with Z score<−2 and 15% of them had Z score<−4 malnutrition. Out of 100 children, 46% children were males, and 56% children were females. Vitamin E deficiencies (54%) were highly prevalent in hospitalized SAM groups, followed by 28% vitamin D and 18% were vitamin A deficient. Conclusion: Micronutrient deficiencies were highly prevalent with fat soluble vitamins and recovered on application of WHO protocols during hospitalization induced satisfactory fat-soluble vitamin status recovery significant (p<0.05).

2021 ◽  
pp. 26-29
D. A. Khavkina ◽  
P. V. Chukhliaev ◽  
T. A. Ruzhentsova

The article presents a clinical case of recurrent eczema. Despite treatment lasting more than 5 years, the patient observed only a short-term effect of the therapy. The cause of the continuous course of severe eczema was malnutrition and hypovitaminosis of vitamins A and E, due to a lack of fish and seafood in the diet. Despite the relatively rare occurrence of eczema in the outpatient practice of a general practitioner, on average from 2 to 5 % of the adult population in the world suffers from this disease. Among the main methods of treating eczema is long – term antihistamine and anti-inflammatory therapy. However, these methods of treatment are not always enough. The reason for the continuous course of eczema was irrational nutrition with a lack of fat-soluble vitamins A and E. Correction of the diet using a sorbent based on the herb Zostera marina allowed to achieve significant improvement and remission of the disease.Conclusions. 1) A thorough analysis of anamnestic data is required to determine the treatment regimen in cases of prolonged persistence of eczema symptoms, with resistance to standard therapy algorithms. 2) Patient’s refusal of certain types of food can lead to hypovitaminosis, which is accompanied by skin symptoms. 3) The appointment of retinol, tocopherol acetate and vitamin D 1 will contribute to a rapid and effective improvement of the condition of the skin in cases with insufficient consumption of products containing fat-soluble vitamins. Preparations made from the sea grass Zostera marina help to improve digestion, sorb and remove unwanted biologically active substances, reducing the severity and relieving skin manifestations.

B. Ya. Kyryliv ◽  
A. V. Hunchak ◽  
I. B. Ratych ◽  
B. V. Gutyj

The article is a summary of the literature on the main aspects of the modern bird feeding system. Theoretical aspects and results of experimental research of scientists on the substantiation of parameters of protein and amino acid nutrition are given, which is an important factor that, under appropriate conditions can significantly guarantee the realization of the genetic potential of corresponding breeds and crosses of poultry. It is shown that an important aspect of protein nutrition is the ratio of feed amino acids. Their negative interaction can be caused by a deficiency of one or more amino acids, an imbalance between them, antagonism, and toxicity. This is accompanied by effects on various physiological and biochemical processes, significantly affects appetite, intestinal absorption, renal reabsorption and transport of amino acids, their catabolism, rate of protein decomposition, synthesis, and formation of toxic metabolic products. The data show that the required level of energy for the bird's body is provided by carbohydrates (mainly of plant origin) and lipids (fat supplements of various origins). It is noted that lipids promote the absorption, transport, and deposition of fat-soluble vitamins. The effectiveness of using fat supplements as energy depends on their source. At the same time, among the indispensable nutrients that have a significant impact on growth intensity, reproductive quality, poultry productivity, and biological value of products, an important role is played by macro-and micronutrients. Many researchers emphasize that along with the use of traditional feeds in poultry feeding, the possibilities of non-traditional cereals rich in protein and lipids are not fully used. A limiting factor in their use is the presence in their composition of anti-nutrients contained in many feeds. Once in the digestive tract of animals, they negatively affect the absorption of feed nutrients. In most cases, the consumption of such feed by animals is manifested in growth retardation, increased feed consumption, hormonal effects, and, less frequently, in the dysfunction of certain organs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Wei Zhang ◽  
Linyong Xu ◽  
Ling Zhu ◽  
Yifan Liu ◽  
Siwei Yang ◽  

Lipid droplets (LDs) are commonly found in various biological cells and are organelles related to cell metabolism. LDs, the number and size of which are heterogeneous across cell type, are primarily composed of polar lipids and proteins on the surface with neutral lipids in the core. Neutral lipids stored in LDs can be degraded by lipolysis and lipophagocytosis, which are regulated by various proteins. The process of LD formation can be summarized in four steps. In addition to energy production, LDs play an extremely pivotal role in a variety of physiological and pathological processes, such as endoplasmic reticulum stress, lipid toxicity, storage of fat-soluble vitamins, regulation of oxidative stress, and reprogramming of cell metabolism. Interestingly, LDs, the hub of integration between metabolism and the immune system, are involved in antitumor immunity, anti-infective immunity (viruses, bacteria, parasites, etc.) and some metabolic immune diseases. Herein, we summarize the role of LDs in several major immune cells as elucidated in recent years, including T cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, mast cells, and neutrophils. Additionally, we analyze the role of the interaction between LDs and immune cells in two typical metabolic immune diseases: atherosclerosis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 ◽  
Jeyakumar Shanmugam Murugaiha

: The liver plays a crucial role in endogenous metabolic activity and homeostasis of macro and micronutrients. Further, it acts as a metabolic hub in mammals, where the ingested food-derived nutrients and xenobiotics or drugs are metabolized for utilization and/or excretion through its enzymatic and non-enzymatic machinery. Nutritional deficiency, one of the major public health problems, is associated with global disease burden, including pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Though it is a curable and preventable infectious disease, millions of people succumb to death, and people in numbers larger than this are still suffering. This scenario is further complicated by the addition of new cases, disease recurrence, and the emergence of drug-resistant, all of which contribute to the spread of this epidemic. Though the manifestation of TB disease has multiple aetiologies, poor nutritional status and sub-optimal therapeutic concentrations of first-line anti-TB drugs are considered as potential contributors to its widespread prevalence. Among various factors, the pharmacokinetic variability of anti-TB drugs is one of the main causes for sub-optimal therapeutic drug concentration in TB patients, which is influenced by the host’s genetic make-up and nutritional status, besides several others. However, the role of epigenetic changes in hepatic drug metabolic pathways and their transcript levels is largely unexplored. Therefore, in this review, an attempt has been made to understand the role of micronutrient deficiencies with special reference to fat-soluble vitamins, namely vitamin A, D, & E in pulmonary TB, their possible impact on epigenetic changes on the drug-metabolizing pathway genes, thus their expression levels and plausible influence on pharmacokinetic variability of anti-TB drugs, besides discussing the limitations and emerging potential opportunities. Eventually, this would help in developing the host-directed/personalized therapeutic strategies for the elimination of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB).

PB Surner ◽  

In many regions of the world, goat milk and its milk products have played a major role in economic viability, particularly in developing countries like India. In terms of getting milk products high in minerals and other protein, the importance of free grazing still prevails and is preferred over stall feeding, but both ways are good in general. With the importance of the above in mind, an approach has been taken in the current study to compare the yield of milk from goats using a stall-feeding system and a free grazing system. Our findings show that milk minerals such as Calcium, Potassium, Magnesium, and Sodium are higher in stall-feeding goat systems than in free grazing systems because stall-feeding provides a computed ration – Minerals, Common salt, mineral mixture, concentrate feeding, feed additives, and feed supplement. As a result, milk minerals are higher in stall-feeding goat systems than in free grazing goat systems. Lactose levels are higher in stall-feeding systems than in open grazing systems because leguminous feeds like as lucerne and bersim grasses, as well as green forages, are used. Because they graze freely in the environment and consume various types of feeds, fat percentage is higher in the free grazing system of goats than in the stall-feeding system. Since stall-feeding systems provide feed supplement and concentrate feeding, fat soluble vitamins are higher in stall-feeding systems than in free grazing systems, which is why fat-soluble vitamins are higher in stall-feeding systems of goats.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-28
Caroline S. Stokes ◽  
Daniela Weber ◽  
Stefan Wagenpfeil ◽  
Wolfgang Stuetz ◽  
María Moreno-Villanueva ◽  

Abstract Self-rated health (SRH) is associated with higher risk of death. Since low plasma levels of fat-soluble vitamins are related to mortality, we aimed to assess whether plasma concentrations of vitamins A, D and E were associated with SRH in the MARK-AGE study. We included 3158 participants (52% female) aged between 35–75 years. Cross-sectional data were collected via questionnaires. An enzyme immunoassay quantified 25-hydroxyvitamin D and HPLC determined α-tocopherol and retinol plasma concentrations. The median 25-hydroxyvitamin D and retinol concentrations differed significantly (P<0.001) between SRH categories, and were lower in the combined fair/poor category versus the excellent, very good, good categories (25-hydroxvitamin D: 40.8 vs. 51.9, 49.3, 46.7 nmol/l, respectively; retinol: 1.67 vs. 1.75, 1.74, 1.70 µmol/l, respectively). Both vitamin D and retinol status were independently associated with fair/poor SRH in multiple regression analyses: adjusted ORs (95% CI) for the vitamin D insufficiency, deficiency, severe deficiency categories were 1.33 (1.06–1.68), 1.50 (1.17–1.93), and 1.83 (1.34–2.50) respectively; P=0.015, P=0.001, P<0.001, and for the second/third/fourth retinol quartiles: 1.44 (1.18–1.75), 1.57 (1.28–1.93), 1.49 (1.20–1.84); all P<0.001. No significant associations were reported for α-tocopherol quartiles. Lower vitamin A and D status emerged as independent markers for fair/poor SRH. Further insights into the long-term implications of these modifiable nutrients on health status are warranted.

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