maize breeding
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BMC Genomics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Sirlene Viana de Faria ◽  
Leandro Tonello Zuffo ◽  
Wemerson Mendonça Rezende ◽  
Diego Gonçalves Caixeta ◽  
Hélcio Duarte Pereira ◽  

Abstract Background The characterization of genetic diversity and population differentiation for maize inbred lines from breeding programs is of great value in assisting breeders in maintaining and potentially increasing the rate of genetic gain. In our study, we characterized a set of 187 tropical maize inbred lines from the public breeding program of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV) in Brazil based on 18 agronomic traits and 3,083 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers to evaluate whether this set of inbred lines represents a panel of tropical maize inbred lines for association mapping analysis and investigate the population structure and patterns of relationships among the inbred lines from UFV for better exploitation in our maize breeding program. Results Our results showed that there was large phenotypic and genotypic variation in the set of tropical maize inbred lines from the UFV maize breeding program. We also found high genetic diversity (GD = 0.34) and low pairwise kinship coefficients among the maize inbred lines (only approximately 4.00 % of the pairwise relative kinship was above 0.50) in the set of inbred lines. The LD decay distance over all ten chromosomes in the entire set of maize lines with r2 = 0.1 was 276,237 kb. Concerning the population structure, our results from the model-based STRUCTURE and principal component analysis methods distinguished the inbred lines into three subpopulations, with high consistency maintained between both results. Additionally, the clustering analysis based on phenotypic and molecular data grouped the inbred lines into 14 and 22 genetic divergence clusters, respectively. Conclusions Our results indicate that the set of tropical maize inbred lines from UFV maize breeding programs can comprise a panel of tropical maize inbred lines suitable for a genome-wide association study to dissect the variation of complex quantitative traits in maize, mainly in tropical environments. In addition, our results will be very useful for assisting us in the assignment of heterotic groups and the selection of the best parental combinations for new breeding crosses, mapping populations, mapping synthetic populations, guiding crosses that target highly heterotic and yielding hybrids, and predicting untested hybrids in the public breeding program UFV.

Euphytica ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 218 (2) ◽  
Igor Ferreira Coelho ◽  
Renan Garcia Malikouski ◽  
Jeniffer Santana Pinto Coelho Evangelista ◽  
Marco Antônio Peixoto ◽  
Rodrigo Silva Alves ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 79 (2) ◽  
Francielly de Cássia Pereira ◽  
Magno Antonio Patto Ramalho ◽  
Marcio Fernando Ribeiro de Resende Junior ◽  
Renzo Garcia Von Pinho

2021 ◽  
Ao Zhang ◽  
Shan Chen ◽  
Zhenhai Cui ◽  
Yubo Liu ◽  
Yuan Guan ◽  

Abstract Drought tolerance in maize is a complex and polygenic trait, especially in the seedling stage. In plant breeding, such traits can be improved by genomic selection (GS), which has become a practical and effective tool. In the present study, a natural maize population named Northeast China core population (NCCP) consisting of 379 inbred lines were genotyped with diversity arrays technology (DArT) and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) platforms. Target traits of seedling emergence rate (ER), seedling plant height (SPH), and grain yield (GY) were evaluated under two natural drought environments in northeast China. adequate genetic variants have been found for genomic selection, they are not stable enough between two years. Similarly, the heritability of the three traits is not stable enough, and the heritabilities in 2019 (0.88, 0.82, 0.85 for ER, SPH, GY) are higher than that in 2020 (0.65, 0.53, 0.33) and cross-two-year (0.32, 0.26, 0.33). The current research obtained two kinds of marker sets: the SilicoDArT markers were from DArT-seq, and SNPs were from the GBS and DArT-seq. In total, a number of 11,865 SilicoDArT, 7,837 DArT's SNPs, and 91,003 GBS SNPs were used for analysis after quality control. The results of phylogenetic trees showed that the population was rich in consanguinity. Genomic prediction results showed that the average prediction accuracies estimated using the DArT SNP dataset under the 2-fold cross-validation scheme were 0.27, 0.19, and 0.33, for ER, SPH, and GY, respectively. The result of SilicoDArT is close to the SNPs from DArT-seq, those were 0.26, 0.22, and 0.33. For SPH, the prediction accuracies using SilicoDArT were more than ones using DArT SNP, In some cases, alignment to the reference genome results in a loss to the prediction. The trait with lower heritability can improve the prediction accuracy using filtering of linkage disequilibrium. For the same trait, the prediction accuracy estimated with two types of DArT markers was consistently higher than those estimated with the GBS SNPs under the same genotyping cost. Our results show the prediction accuracy has been improved in some cases of controlling population structure and marker quality, even when the density of the marker is reduced. In the initial maize breeding cycle, Silicodart markers can obtain higher prediction accuracy with a lower cost. However, higher marker density platforms i.e. GBS may play a role in the following breeding cycle for the long term. The natural drought experimental station can reduce the difficulty of phenotypic identification in a water-scarce environment. The accumulation of more yearly data will help to stabilize the heritability and improve predictive accuracy in maize breeding. The experimental design and model for drought resistance also need to be further developed.

Poljoprivreda ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 50-55
Domagoj Stepinac ◽  
Hrvoje Šarčević ◽  
Ivica Buhiniček ◽  
Mirko Jukić ◽  
Bojan Marković ◽  

Thousand kernel weight (TKW) is an important yield component trait affected by the environmental conditions. This study’s objectives were to determine an environmental variability for the TKW in 32 maize hybrids, sorted in four FAO maturity groups (FAO300, 400, 500 and 600), and to compare 12 environments in Croatia (six locations in two years) according to the joint linear regression and stability analyses across the maturity groups. In general, the effects of the environment, genotype, and their interaction (GEI) were significant. A three-factor ANOVA revealed the greatest and highly significant year effect, while the location effect was non-significant across all four FAO groups. A stability analysis did not detect any preferences with regard to the locations and trends across the FAO groups. It indicates that all locations in the Pannonian region included in this study were suitable for an evaluation of the TKW in maize genotypes belonging to all maturity groups. The TKW seems to be an appropriate yield-component trait for maize breeding due to a high heritability and linear GEI nature.

Yu. V. Belokur ◽  
L. O. Ryabovol

Scientific publications of domestic and foreign scientists are analyzed, new approaches to solving the problem of obtaining the original breeding material of corn are identified. The necessity of creation of lines and hybrids of culture with erectile arrangement of a leaf plate is substantiated. It is confirmed that the primary task of the selection process is to group the collection of samples and obtain starting materials for heterosis selection, in particular, on the basis of CSF. To expand genetic diversity and reduce the period of creation of the original forms, it is advisable to use biotechnological methods. Stable production of corn grain is possible in the presence of hybrids with high potential productivity, resistance to pests, diseases, unfavorable environmental factors that meet the modern requirements of intensive technology. A clear understanding of the improved morphological and physiological type of plants and the elucidation of the biological reasons that limit their productivity in certain environmental conditions, contribute to an increase in the efficiency of using corn hybrids and the profitability of agricultural production. When creating hybrids, it is critical to select the parent components that will ensure their high performance. To conduct heterotic selection, the presence of homozygous lines is necessary. Currently, in order to achieve significant success in maize breeding, great attention must be paid to the creation of new starting material with a wide genetic diversity and in particular with an erectoid placement of the leaf plate. The necessity of creating lines and hybrids of culture with erectoid placement of the leaf plate is substantiated. It was confirmed that the primary task of the breeding process is grouping the collection of samples and obtaining initial materials for conducting heterotic breeding, in particular, based on CMS. To expand genetic diversity and shorten the period for creating initial forms, it is advisable to use biotechnological methods.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 54-64
M. Oyekunle ◽  
S.G. Ado ◽  
I.S. Usman

Identification of ideal testing sites for selection of superior maize (Zea mays L.) germplam is vital to the success of a maize breeding programme. Sixteen provitamin A maize genotypes were evaluated at seven locations in savanna agro-ecologies of Nigeria for 3 yr to assess the representativeness, discriminating ability, and repeatability of the testing sites and to identify ideal testing sites for selection of superior maize germplasm. Location, year, and their interaction effects were significant for grain yield and mostmeasured traits while genotype and genotype ´x year interactive effects were significant for grain yield. The genotype main effects plus genotype ´x environment interaction (GGE) biplot analysis revealed PVA SYN-18 F2 as the highest-yielding and most stable genotype across environments. The GGE biplot identified Zaria, Saminaka, and Kaboji as the most discriminating locations. Also, the biplot identified Kaboji, Batsari, Saminaka, and Zaria as the most repeatable locations. Zaria and Saminaka, being among the most discriminating, representative and repeatable locations, were considered as the core testing sites for selection of superior maize genotypes for release and commercialization. The core testing sites identified in this study should facilitate the identification of stable and high-yielding maize germplasm adaptable to the savannas agro-ecologies of Nigeria.

Vaskar Subba ◽  
Anirban Nath ◽  
Sabyasachi Kundagrami ◽  
Amitava Ghosh

Background: High protein content with good quality maize is likely to gain wider acceptance if hybrids are produced that have agronomic performance similar to normal hybrids and retain an enhanced nutritional quality. Thus, an attempt was made to develop quality protein maize hybrids for the benefit of different sections of society depending on maize. Methods: During the Rabi season of 2016-17 (hybrids were obtained crossing ten inbred lines and four testers following Line x Tester mating design) and 2017-18 (evaluation of hybrids and parents involved along with two commercial checks based on different agro-morphological traits). Result: Highly significant differences were observed among lines, testers and crosses. Combining ability revealed SCA variances was higher indicating preponderance of non-additive gene action. The contribution of line x tester interaction was higher suggesting parents used in this study can provide high heterotic cross combinations. The parents CML 508, CML 163-D and CML 169 were superior general combiners, indicating their efficacy as parents in future maize breeding programs. Heterosis identified superior yield advantage of the crosses namely, CML508 x CML154-2, CML170 x CML169 and CML163-D x DMRQPM103 over the standard commercial checks HQPM1 and 900 M Gold.

2021 ◽  
Vol 50 (4) ◽  
pp. 406-417
Conny J.M. Almekinders ◽  
Paul Hebinck ◽  
Wytze Marinus ◽  
Richard D. Kiaka ◽  
Wycliffe W. Waswa

In this article we reflect on the discussions as to whether breeding and seed system development should proceed along its current well established route of developing varieties with a higher agricultural productivity or if the diversity of farmers, their contexts and rationales requires broader approaches. We make use of data from a recently held survey (2018) in West Kenya. The data show that some 80% of the households in the survey planted both local and hybrid maize varieties. The choices that people make about which variety to plant are many. Apart from rainfall, the availability of cash, the promise of a good yield, the presence of projects and programs and the culture of seed also influences these choices. We argue that an inclusive demand-oriented maize breeding and seed system needs to include a range of varieties and seed sources and to develop and support different delivery pathways to fit farmers’ diverse use of seeds and varieties. Our findings also indicate the need for more systematic study of the diversity of farmers’ rationales and the performance of crop varieties. This would provide useful information for all the actors involved.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Hanqian Zhang ◽  
Yuying Qin ◽  
Kai Huang ◽  
Fangdong Zhan ◽  
Ru Li ◽  

To assess root metabolic differences of maize varieties in their response to lead (Pb) stress, the lead-tolerant variety Huidan No. 4 and the lead-sensitive variety Ludan No. 8 were tested under Pb-free and Pb-stressed conditions. Changes in metabolites were measured using ultra-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Pb stress changed the levels of the amino acids proline, glutamine, lysine, and arginine in both varieties, whereas glutamate and phenylalanine levels changed only in Huidan No. 4. Pb stress altered cystine, valine, methionine, and tryptophan levels only in Ludan No. 8. Therefore, the synthesis and decomposition of amino acids may affect the response of maize to Pb stress. The degree of change in differential metabolites for Huidan No. 4 was greater than that for Ludan No. 8. In cell wall subcellular components, increases in superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidases (PODs), and Pb concentrations were greater in Huidan No. 4 than in Ludan No. 8. Therefore, the greater Pb tolerance of Huidan No. 4 could be due to better sequestration of Pb in cell walls and more effective removal of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from the plant. The levels of certain metabolites only increased in Ludan No. 8, indicating that Pb-sensitive varieties may use different metabolic pathways to cope with Pb stress. Both varieties showed increased levels of some metabolites related to antioxidant protection and osmotic regulation. This study provides an understanding of maize Pb tolerance mechanisms and a basis for further development of tools for use in maize breeding.

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