reduced ejection fraction
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Cicoira Maria Antonietta ◽  
Emiliano Calvi ◽  
Andrea Faggiano ◽  
Caterina Maffeis ◽  
Marco Bosisio ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 73-76
Madhu Aryal

Introduction: Cardiomyopathy is the disorder of the heart muscles which can be dilated, hypertrophic or restrictive type. Dilated cardiomyopathy is caused by genetic and non-genetic causes but many of the causes are still not known. Echocardiography is an important imaging technique to diagnose and manage dilated cardiomyopathy. Aims: This study aims to assess the clinical and echocardiographic findings among patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Methods: This is a cross-sectional, observational study conducted in Nepalgunj Medical College from January 2021 to June 2021. A total of 61 patients with dilated Cardiomyopathy were enrolled after obtaining written informed consent. Clinical examination and echocardiographic findings were recorded and data analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Results: The participants included 31 men and 30 women with dilated cardiomyopathy. The mean age of the participants was 58.49 + 15.46 years. The most common complaint was shortness of breath 84.5% and the most common clinical presentation was bilateral basal crepitation 98.4%. The patients mostly had diastolic left ventricle internal diameter of 5.5-6 cm and ejection fraction of 21-30%. Mitral regurgitation was observed among most 58(95.1%) of the patients. Conclusion: This study concludes that shortness of breath and bilateral basal crepitation are the most common presentation. Left ventricle dilation, reduced ejection fraction and mitral regurgitation are seen among majority of the patients.

Francesco Dentali ◽  
Giuseppe Campagna ◽  
Maurizio Cavalleri ◽  
Fernando Gallucci ◽  
Filippo Pieralli

Nuova classificazione dello scompenso cardiaco: ridenominazione di Heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction in Heart failure with mildly reduced ejection fraction (HFmrEF), con raccomandazioni terapeutiche più precise in questa fascia di pazienti Il nuovo algoritmo per il trattamento dello scompenso cardiaco a frazione di eiezione ridotta: Simultaneous or Rapid Sequence Initiation of Quadruple Medical Therapy for Heart Failure Ottimizzazione della terapia: l’ospedalizzazione come opportunità. Impiego precoce di sacubitril/valsartan nel paziente ospedalizzato, stabilizzato. Effetti sulla riduzione della mortalità e delle re-ospedalizzazioni. Effetti sul rimodellamento cardiaco. Effetti sulla QoL Sicurezza dell’uso di sacubitril/valsartan anche in presenza di comorbidità e gestione dell’ipotensione Intervento di ottimizzazione della terapia anche nel paziente con scompenso cardiaco cronico ricoverato per altra patologia acuta Terapia delle comorbidità - non cardiovascolari: diabete, iperkaliemia, carenza di ferro e cancro Terapia non farmacologica ed educazione/formazione del paziente e del caregiver Gestione post-ricovero dello scompenso cardiaco: l’ambulatorio divisionale e la rete territoriale

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Minghui Yang ◽  
Rongfeng Zhang ◽  
Huamin Tang ◽  
Guocao Li ◽  
Xumin Guan ◽  

Aims: Catheter ablation should be considered in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (EF; HFrEF) to improve survival and reduce heart failure hospitalization. Careful patient selection for AF ablation is key to achieving similar outcome benefits. However, limited data exist regarding predictors of recovered ejection fraction. We aimed to evaluate the predictors of recovered ejection fraction in consecutive patients with HF undergoing AF ablation.Methods and Results: A total of 156 patients [67.3% men, median age 63 (11)] with AF and HF underwent initial catheter ablation between September 2017 and October 2019 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University. Overall, the percentage of recovered ejection fractions was 72.3%. Recovered EFs were associated with a 39% reduction in all-cause hospitalization compared to non-recovered EFs at the 1-year follow-up [23.8 vs. 62.8 (odds ratio) OR 2.09 (1.40–3.12), P < 0.001]. Univariate analysis for recovered EFs showed that diabetes (P = 0.083), prevalent HF (P = 0.014), prevalent AF (P = 0.051), LVEF (P = 0.022), and E/E′ (P = 0.001) were associated with EF improvement. Multivariate analysis showed that the only independent predictor of EF recovery was E/E′ [OR 1.13 (1.03–1.24); P = 0.011]. A receiver operating characteristic analysis determined that the suitable cut-off value for E/E′ was 15 (sensitivity 38.7%, specificity 89.2%, the area under curve 0.704).Conclusions: Ejection fraction (EF) recovery occurred in 72.3% of patients, associated with a 39% reduction in all-cause hospitalization compared to the non-recovered EFs in our cohort. The only independent predictor of recovered EF was E/E′ < 15 in our series.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261986
Ning Li ◽  
Guowei Zhou ◽  
Yawei Zheng ◽  
Dan Lv ◽  
Xiangjun Zhu ◽  

Introduction After stage 3 CKD, the risk of adverse cardiovascular events increased significantly. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the cardiovascular protective effect of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with stage 3/4 CKD with different baseline kidney function or underlying diseases. Method To identify eligible trials, we systematically searched the Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane library databases from inception to April 15, 2021. The primary cardiovascular outcome was defined as a combination of cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization due to heart failure. Baseline kidney functions (stage 3a CKD: eGFR45-59mL/min per 1.73m2, stage 3b CKD: eGFR30-44mL/min per 1.73m2, stage 4 CKD: eGFR<30mL/min per 1.73m2) and underlying diseases (Type 2 diabetes, heart failure (Preserved ejection fraction or reduced ejection fraction), atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease) were used to stratify efficacy and safety outcomes. The results were subjected to a sensitivity analysis to ensure that they were reliable. Results In the present study, a total of eleven trials were included that involved a total of 27,823 patients with stage 3/4 CKD. The treatment and control groups contained 14,451 and 13,372 patients, respectively. In individuals with stage 3/4 CKD, SGLT2 inhibitors reduced the risk of primary cardiovascular outcomes by 26% (HR 0.74, [95% CI 0.69–0.80], I2 = 0.00%), by 30% in patients with stage 3a CKD (HR 0.70, [95% CI 0.59–0.84], I2 = 18.70%), by 23% in patients with stage 3b CKD (HR 0.77, [95% CI 0.66–0.90], I2 = 2.12%), and by 29% in patients with stage 4 CKD (HR 0.71, [95% CI 0.53–0.96], I2 = 0.00%). The risk of primary outcomes was reduced by 29% (HR 0.71, [95% CI 0.63–0.80], I2 = 0.00%) in patients with type 2 diabetes, by 28% (HR 0.72, [95% CI 0.56–0.93], I2 = 37.23%) in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, by 21% (HR 0.79, [95% CI 0.70–0.89], I2 = 0.00%) in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, and by 25% (HR 0.75, [95% CI 0.64–0.88], I2 = 0.00%) in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Conclusions For stage 3/4 CKD, SGLT2 inhibitors significantly decreased the risk of primary cardiovascular outcomes, and these benefits were consistent throughout the spectrum of different kidney functions, even in stage 4 CKD. There was no evidence of increased adverse outcomes across different baseline clinical complications, such as type 2 diabetes, heart failure, or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 23
Alexander A. Berezin ◽  
Ivan M. Fushtey ◽  
Alexander E. Berezin

Background: Apelin is a regulatory vasoactive peptide, which plays a pivotal role in adverse cardiac remodeling and heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether serum levels of apelin is associated with HF with preserved election fraction (HFpEF) in patients with T2DM. Methods: The study retrospectively involved 101 T2DM patients aged 41 to 62 years (48 patients with HFpEF and 28 non-HFpEF patients). The healthy control group consisted of 25 individuals with matched age and sex. Data collection included demographic and anthropometric information, hemodynamic performances and biomarkers of the disease. Transthoracic B-mode echocardiography, Doppler and TDI were performed at baseline. Serum levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and apelin were measured by ELISA in all patients at the study entry. Results: Unadjusted multivariate logistic model yielded the only apelin to NT-proBNP ratio (OR = 1.44; p = 0.001), BMI > 34 кг/м2 (OR = 1.07; p = 0.036), NT-proBNP > 458 pmol/mL (OR = 1.17; p = 0.042), LAVI > 34 mL/m2 (OR = 1.06; p = 0.042) and E/e’ > 11 (OR = 1.04; p = 0.044) remained to be strong predictors for HFpEF. After obesity adjustment, multivariate logistic regression showed that the apelin to NT-proBNP ratio < 0.82 × 10−2 units remained sole independent predictor for HFpEF (OR = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.18–2.77; p = 0.001) HFpEF in T2DM patients. In conclusion, we found that apelin to NT-proBNP ratio < 0.82 × 10−2 units better predicted HFpEF in T2DM patients than apelin and NT-proBNP alone. This finding could open new approach for CV risk stratification of T2DM at higher risk of HF.

Heart ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. heartjnl-2021-319605
Andreas B Gevaert ◽  
Rachna Kataria ◽  
Faiez Zannad ◽  
Andrew J Sauer ◽  
Kevin Damman ◽  

It is estimated that half of all patients with heart failure (HF) have HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Yet this form of HF remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Differentiating HFpEF from other causes of dyspnoea may require advanced diagnostic methods, such as exercise echocardiography, invasive haemodynamics and investigations for ‘HFpEF mimickers’. While the classification of HF has relied heavily on cut-points in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), recent evidence points towards a gradual shift in underlying mechanisms, phenotypes and response to therapies as LVEF increases. For example, among patients with HF, the proportion of hospitalisations and deaths due to cardiac causes decreases as LVEF increases. Medication classes that are efficacious in HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) have been less so at higher LVEF ranges, decreasing the risk of HF hospitalisation but not cardiovascular or all-cause death in HFpEF. These observations reflect the burden of non-cardiac comorbidities as LVEF increases and highlight the complex pathophysiological mechanisms, both cardiac and non-cardiac, underpinning HFpEF. Treatment with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors reduces the risk of composite cardiovascular events, driven by a reduction in HF hospitalisations; renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockers and angiotensin-neprilysin inhibitors result in smaller reductions in HF hospitalisations among patients with HFpEF. Comprehensive management of HFpEF includes exercise as well as treatment of risk factors and comorbidities. Classification based on phenotypes may facilitate a more targeted approach to treatment than LVEF categorisation, which sets arbitrary cut-points when LVEF is a continuum. This narrative review summarises the pathophysiology, diagnosis, classification and management of patients with HFpEF.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Liuzhang Fan ◽  
Lingyun Gu ◽  
Yuyu Yao ◽  
Genshan Ma

Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the roles of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction and its association with Heart Failure with reduced Ejection Fraction (HFrEF). Methods. The level of FGF21 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 199 subjects enrolled in this study, including 128 subjects with HFrEF and 71 control subjects. The mean follow-up time was 13.36 months. The left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) percentage were evaluated by the 2D echocardiography. Serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) was measured in the routine clinical laboratory. Results. The serum FGF21 level was evidently higher in patients with HFrEF than in the control group ( 228.72 ± 24.04 vs. 171.60 ± 12.98 , p < 0.001 ). After 1 year of follow-up, 61 patients (47.66%) with heart failure were readmitted to the hospital, including 8 deaths (13.11%). The AUC of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for the predictive value of FGF21 for prognosis was 0.964. Kaplan-Meier analysis results showed that there were significant differences in the 1-year mortality and heart failure readmission events between the grouped subjects. A poor prognosis was correlated with the serum level of FGF21, BNP, LVEDD, and LVEF, which was confirmed by the univariate Cox analysis. Conclusion. FGF21 was independently associated with an increased risk of mortality and readmission HFrEF patients. Therefore, FGF21 has the potential to be a biomarker for the progression of HFrEF in patients.

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