Oil Palm Trunk
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2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Author(s):  
Agustin Krisna Wardani ◽  
Aji Sutrisno ◽  
Titik Nur Faida ◽  
Retno Dwi Yustina ◽  
Untung Murdiyatmo

Background. Oil palm trunk (OPT) with highly cellulose content is a valuable bioresource for bioethanol production. To produce ethanol from biomass, pretreatment is an essential step in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars such as glucose and xylose. Several pretreatment methods have been developed to overcome biomass recalcitrance. In this study, the effects of different pretreatment methods such as alkali pretreatment, microwave-alkali, and alkaline peroxide combined with autoclave on the lignocellulosic biomass structure were investigated. Moreover, ethanol production from the treated biomass was performed by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF) under different temperatures, fermentation times, and cell ratios of Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCYC 479 and pentose-utilizing yeast, Pichia stipitis NCYC 1541. Results. Pretreatment resulted in a significant lignin removal up to 83.26% and cellulose released up to 80.74% in treated OPT by alkaline peroxide combined with autoclave method. Enzymatic hydrolysis of treated OPT resulted in an increase in fermentable sugar up to 93.22%. Optimization of SSCF by response surface method showed that the coculture could work together to produce maximum ethanol (1.89%) and fermentation efficiency (66.14%) under the optimized condition. Conclusion. Pretreatment by alkaline peroxide combined with autoclave method and SSCF process could be expected as a promising system for ethanol production from oil palm trunk and various lignocellulosic biomass.


Author(s):  
Nurul Adela Bukhari ◽  
Soh Kheang Loh ◽  
Abdullah Amru Indera Luthfi ◽  
Peer Mohamed Abdul ◽  
Jamaliah Md Jahim

2021 ◽  
Vol 891 (1) ◽  
pp. 012022
Author(s):  
N J Wistara ◽  
P Diputra ◽  
D Hendra

Abstract Oil palm trunk (OPT) is a potential raw material for biopellet manufacturing. This study aimed to reduce the ash content of biopellet through pre-treatment with sulfuric acid. The moisture content, durability, ash content, density, and calorific values of the biopellet were determined according to DIN EN 14961-2 and 51731 standards. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated the presence of inter-particle interlocking in the highly durable biopellet. Thermal analysis indicated that the mass and water loss, hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin decomposition occurred at 76.12 ºC, 113.97-200 ºC, 310-360 ºC, and >400 ºC, respectively. Biopellet produced retained a moisture content of 3.40-8.90%, the durability of 97.75-99.38%, ash content after pre-treatment with H2SO4 of 1.02-1.47%, control ash content of 2.20-3.31%, the density of 1.03-1.30 g/cm3, and the calorific value of 3954-4608 kcal/kg. The biopellet quality fulfilled the requirements of DIN EN 14961-2, 51731, and SNI 8021-2014 standard, except for the ash content of the control.


2021 ◽  
Vol 891 (1) ◽  
pp. 012003
Author(s):  
S S Munawar ◽  
C D Widyanto ◽  
L S Hutahean ◽  
D Purnomo ◽  
B Subiyanto ◽  
...  

Abstract The oil palm trunk (OPT) particle was used as a filler for the manufacture of rigid polyurethane foam composites (RPUFC). The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of OPT particle content and variation of composite density on the physical and mechanical properties of RPUFC. The RPUFC was created with five different volume fractions of OPT particles (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 wt%) and three different composite densities (40, 50, 60 kg/m3). The OPT particles, polyols, and isocyanate were mixed, poured and formed in a closed mold. The moisture content (MC), water absorption (WA), compressive strength (CS), screw withdrawal (SW), and internal bonding strength (IB) properties were determined according to JIS A 5908-2003. The flexural strength (FS) properties were determined according to ASTM D790. The physical properties (MC, WA) were increased with increasing OPT particles in the RPUFC. The RPUFC with 2.5% OPT particle was higher in modulus of rupture, modulus of young and CS values compared to RPUFC control. The IB and SW values were increased when 2.5% OPT particles were added to RPUFC. The best PURFCs were produced with the addition of 2.5% particles at a density of 50 and 60 kg/m3.


2021 ◽  
Vol 1195 (1) ◽  
pp. 012025
Author(s):  
K J Lau ◽  
A Lim ◽  
J J Chew ◽  
L H Ngu ◽  
J Sunarso

Abstract Palm oil mill effluent (POME) has become a serious problem for the oil palm industries because of its high organic contents and other contaminant formation that results in dark colour, turbid and unpleasant odour. In the conventional treatment of POME used in Malaysia, treated POME can still pollute receiving water bodies as colour is one of the major contaminants that is not completely removed. Adsorption is a promising technique for addressing this problem, with a large range of adsorbents to choose from. It works by adhering the pollutants on to the high porous surface area of adsorbent. However, the high cost of coal-based AC that is commonly used can be the limiting factor for its wider application in palm oil industry. Therefore, this work looks into resource recovery (i.e., use of waste stream) from plantation as precursor of AC synthesis to treat its own waste from the palm oil mill. Hence, the suitability of oil palm trunk (OPT) as feedstock for AC application in POME colour removal in the mill is investigated. Experimental run at the as-synthesis OPT-derived AC was performed for validation via POME adsorption test. The result shows that the OPT-derived AC produced can remove the organic pollutants and colour of POME at the dosage of 15% w v−1 within 48 hours.


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