pharmaceutical production
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D. V. Charnyy ◽  
Ye. M. Matseluk ◽  
V. D. Levytska ◽  
S. V. Marysyk ◽  
N. M. Chernova

The current state and formation of water quality in reservoirs that serve as sources of drinking water supply were considered. It was revealed that phytoplankton becomes one of the main factors influencing the formation of water quality in reservoirs in the warm period from June to November, especially during the period of reservoirs “blooming”. Mostly these processes are triggered by the explosive development of blue-green algae (cyanobacteria). The factors accompanying this phenomenon are shown. The characteristic of the influence of global climate change and new composition of wastewater on water quality in surface water supply sources is given. If earlier the sewage contained significant volumes of heavy metals, oil products, phenols, etc., now they are observed to decrease at several times and vice versa - an increase in the volume of biogenic compounds, especially phosphates is observed. The emergence of phosphates is caused both by the ingress of phosphate fertilizers into water bodies, and by household reasons - the massive distribution of phosphate-based detergents and the inability of existing sewage treatment plants to efficiently process them. Screening monitoring of the Dnieper river basin showed extremely high levels of the predicted safe concentration of herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, as well as pharmaceutical substances such as carbomazepine, lopinavir, diclofenac, efavirenz, etc. in water. That is, among organic pollutants, the focus changes from classic petrochemical products to the products related to agricultural and pharmaceutical production, which, in certain concentrations, can stimulate the development of phytoplankton. The effective methods for treating surface water in modern conditions are as follows: - physical retention of coarse fractions of phytoplankton using new designs of water intake structures; - the use of new filter materials that effectively trap finely dispersed phytoplankton fractions at the main treatment facilities and are capable of regenerating the filter media; - the use of new oxidizing agents-disinfectants that do not form toxic organochlorine compounds, with preliminary extraction of phytoplankton masses;

2021 ◽  
pp. 175-180
I.S. Guk ◽  
R.N. Dronov ◽  
O.S. Deiev ◽  
B.I. Shramenko

The process of "Glucose 11C" pharmaceutical production by means of a photonuclear reaction 12C(γ, n) 11C is considered. The parameters of bremsstrahlung and electron beam scattered in the converter are investigated and optimized. It is proposed to use a constant-field magnet to remove electrons from the photon beam. A magnet de-sign is proposed that allows obtaining a field of 0.5 T in a gap of 25 mm. The production of the 11C isotope in the glucose target was estimated.

PeerJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e12392
Rishabha Malviya ◽  
Shivkanya Fuloria ◽  
Swati Verma ◽  
Vetriselvan Subramaniyan ◽  
Kathiresan V. Sathasivam ◽  

The present review aims to describe the commercial utilities and future perspectives of nanomedicines. Nanomedicines are intended to increase precision medicine and decrease the adverse effects on the patient. Nanomedicines are produced, engineered, and industrialized at the cellular, chemical, and macromolecular levels. This study describes the various aspects of nanomedicine such as governing outlooks over high use of nanomedicine, regulatory advancements for nanomedicines, standards, and guidelines for nanomedicines as per Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA). This review also focuses on the patents and clinical trials based on nanoformulation, along with nanomedicines utilization as drug therapy and their market value. The present study concludes that nanomedicines are of high importance in biomedical and pharmaceutical production and offer better therapeutic effects especially in the case of drugs that possess low aqueous solubility. The factual data presented in this study will assist the researchers and health care professionals in understanding the applications of nanomedicine for better diagnosis and effective treatment of a disease.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Andreas Bayerstadler ◽  
Guillaume Becquin ◽  
Julia Binder ◽  
Thierry Botter ◽  

AbstractQuantum computing promises to overcome computational limitations with better and faster solutions for optimization, simulation, and machine learning problems. Europe and Germany are in the process of successfully establishing research and funding programs with the objective to advance the technology’s ecosystem and industrialization, thereby ensuring digital sovereignty, security, and competitiveness. Such an ecosystem comprises hardware/software solution providers, system integrators, and users from research institutions, start-ups, and industry. The vision of the Quantum Technology and Application Consortium (QUTAC) is to establish and advance the quantum computing ecosystem, supporting the ambitious goals of the German government and various research programs. QUTAC is comprised of ten members representing different industries, in particular automotive manufacturing, chemical and pharmaceutical production, insurance, and technology. In this paper, we survey the current state of quantum computing in these sectors as well as the aerospace industry and identify the contributions of QUTAC to the ecosystem. We propose an application-centric approach for the industrialization of the technology based on proven business impact. This paper identifies 24 different use cases. By formalizing high-value use cases into well-described reference problems and benchmarks, we will guide technological progress and eventually commercialization. Our results will be beneficial to all ecosystem participants, including suppliers, system integrators, software developers, users, policymakers, funding program managers, and investors.

2021 ◽  
Gideon Onuh ◽  
Simon Karanja Hinga ◽  
Boniface Makori Nyamweya ◽  
Atayero A. Aderemi

Abstract Background: Counterfeit drugs have been reported as the primary cause of increased morbidity and drug resistance in developing countries. However, consumers' awareness of the prevalence of fake drugs in developing countries remains unknown.Objectives: To assess consumers' awareness and the principal contributors of counterfeit drugs, propose measures to curb this menace in developing countries.Method: Data were collected using a questionnaire with 24 questions bordering on consumer awareness and measures taken by health professionals in combating the prevalence of counterfeit drugs. All the questions were fully completed by participants and submitted online. The data were analyzed using both deductive and inductive approaches. Results: It was observed that the level of awareness of counterfeit drugs among consumers varies across different countries. A high level of awareness was reported in countries with improved technology for combating substandard drugs, comparable to countries with lesser technology. The results show that pharmacy retailers and pharmaceutical industries are the major contributors to the prevalence of counterfeit medicines in developing countries. It was observed that consumers are exploring brand awareness and the physical appearance of drugs in the fight against counterfeit drugs.Conclusion: This study assessed consumers' awareness of counterfeit drugs in selected developing countries and proposed measures that the government can implement in the fight against counterfeit drugs. These measures and findings may be appropriate in designing awareness programs and developing a framework for monitoring pharmaceutical production companies and supply chains.

Chemosphere ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 132837
JiaJia Xue ◽  
Dandan Lei ◽  
Xiumei Zhao ◽  
Yaru Hu ◽  
Shijie Yao ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (3) ◽  
pp. 279-284
R. A. Voroshilin

Bone gelatin is an important and irreplaceable item widely used in the food industry and pharmaceutical production; it is also widely used in tissue engineering and other spheres. Due to widespread use of gelatin it is necessary to search for new safe and effective technologies for bone gelatin production. This research represents the results of enzymatic-acid hydrolysis of raw material in the process of gelatin production. The article presents the results of hydrolysis analyzes, the results of the main quality parameters of the obtained gelatin samples; and the major technological scheme for gelatin production is proposed here. As result of developed technology of enzymatic-acid hydrolysis of bone raw material with the ratio of raw material mass to the volume of solvent (HCl 1M and pepsin with an enzymatic activity of 40 units) as 1:9, duration of exposure: 180 minutes (3 hours), at the stage of demineralization, liming and de-ashing, we obtained samples of gelatin at yield rate of 12.1% from the initial mass of raw materials, which is 6.9% higher in comparison with the lowest yield of gelatin according to the proposed schemes. It is shown that the samples have a high protein mass fraction 91.4%, and a low fat mass fraction 0.4%, the obtained results indicate the high technological qualities of the obtained gelatin sample, this is also confirmed by high strength of gel according to Bloom scale, which value varies within the range of 290 ± 0.7 units.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (21) ◽  
pp. 11380
Sian Thistlethwaite ◽  
Laura N. Jeffreys ◽  
Hazel M. Girvan ◽  
Kirsty J. McLean ◽  
Andrew W. Munro

CYP102A1 (BM3) is a catalytically self-sufficient flavocytochrome fusion protein isolated from Bacillus megaterium, which displays similar metabolic capabilities to many drug-metabolizing human P450 isoforms. BM3′s high catalytic efficiency, ease of production and malleable active site makes the enzyme a desirable tool in the production of small molecule metabolites, especially for compounds that exhibit drug-like chemical properties. The engineering of select key residues within the BM3 active site vastly expands the catalytic repertoire, generating variants which can perform a range of modifications. This provides an attractive alternative route to the production of valuable compounds that are often laborious to synthesize via traditional organic means. Extensive studies have been conducted with the aim of engineering BM3 to expand metabolite production towards a comprehensive range of drug-like compounds, with many key examples found both in the literature and in the wider industrial bioproduction setting of desirable oxy-metabolite production by both wild-type BM3 and related variants. This review covers the past and current research on the engineering of BM3 to produce drug metabolites and highlights its crucial role in the future of biosynthetic pharmaceutical production.

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