size and shape
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Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 278
Jia-Qiang Lin ◽  
Ji-Pei Chen ◽  
Zhen-Yu Tan ◽  
Yuan Chen ◽  
Zhi-Feng Chen ◽  

Magnetic skyrmions are promising potential information carriers for future spintronic devices owing to their nanoscale size, non-volatility and high mobility. In this work, we demonstrate the controlled manipulation of skyrmion motion and its implementation in a new concept of racetrack logical device by introducing an inhomogeneous perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) via micromagnetic simulation. Here, the inhomogeneous PMA can be introduced by a capping nano-island that serves as a tunable potential barriers/well which can effectively modulate the size and shape of isolated skyrmion. Using the inhomogeneous PMA in skyrmion-based racetrack enables the manipulation of skyrmion motion behaviors, for instance, blocking, trapping or allowing passing the injected skyrmion. In addition, the skyrmion trapping operation can be further exploited in developing special designed racetrack devices with logic AND and NOT, wherein a set of logic AND operations can be realized via skyrmion–skyrmion repulsion between two skyrmions. These results indicate an effective method for tailoring the skyrmion structures and motion behaviors by using inhomogeneous PMA, which further provide a new pathway to all-electric skyrmion-based memory and logic devices.

Diversity ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 48
Tamer Albayrak ◽  
Ahmet İhsan Aytek

Traditionally, morphological characters are widely used to distinguish between interspecies and intraspecies. In addition to the size of morphological characters, shape has also been used as an indicator in the last decades. We evaluated the geometric morphometry and morphometric of the bill of Chukar Partridge, Alectoris chukar from captive and wild populations to determine the bill variation and population relationships. Although there was a size difference between the sexes, no shape difference was found. However, captive populations differed from wild populations in both size and shape. Although there was no difference in shape among wild populations, some differences were found in size. Moreover, bill sizes of captive populations were statistically longer than western, centre, and eastern wild populations. It was also shown that the western populations had the most significant variation among the wild populations. The results revealed that using the size and shape together was more effective in comparing populations.

2022 ◽  
pp. 112067212110732
Andrea Montesel ◽  
Chiara M. Eandi ◽  
Leonidas Zografos

Purpose To describe a unique unilateral association between an iris stromal tumor and a macular focal choroidal excavation. Case Description A 40-year old patient presented with a small iris tumor associated with a unilateral macular lesion disclosed during a routine ophthalmologic examination. The patient was asymptomatic and visual function was not affected. After clinical and instrumental evaluation, a diagnosis of nonmelanocytic undefined stromal tumor of the iris associated with macular focal choroidal excavation was made. The size and shape of the two lesions remained stable during a 7-year follow-up and the patient did not develop other signs. Conclusion The concurrent presence of a stromal iris tumor associated with focal choroidal excavation has never been reported. Further reports of this association are required in order to understand its exact pathogenesis.

Phytotaxa ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 530 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-20

Ephedra aurea, a new species occurring in Sicily, is described and illustrated. Taxonomically, it shows close relationships with Ephedra nebrodensis mainly for the small size with internodes scabrous-wrinkled not fragile at the nodes, but relevant differences regarding the size and shape of twigs, leaves, male and female cones, ovules, seeds, fruiting strobili and pollen grains allow to distinguish very well the two species. Its ecology, conservation status and relationships with other allied Mediterranean species are discussed. 

2022 ◽  
Charles Nelson Helms ◽  
Stephen Joseph Munchak ◽  
Ali Tokay ◽  
Claire Pettersen

Abstract. Measurements of snowflake particle size and shape are important for studying the snow microphysics. While a number of instruments exist that are designed to measure these important parameters, this study focuses on the measurement techniques of three digital video disdrometers: the Precipitation Imaging Package (PIP), the Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) and the Two-Dimensional Video Disdrometer (2DVD). To gain a better understanding of the relative strengths and weaknesses of these instruments and to provide a foundation upon which comparisons can be made between studies using data from different instruments, we perform a comparative analysis of the measurement algorithms employed by each of the three instruments by applying the algorithms to snowflake images captured by PIP during the ICEP-POP 2018 field campaign. Our analysis primarily focuses on the measurements of area, equivalent diameter, and aspect ratio. Our findings indicate that area and equi-area diameter measurements using the 2DVD camera setup should be the most accurate, followed by MASC, which is slightly more accurate than PIP. In terms of the precision of the area and equi-area diameter measurements, however, MASC is considerably more precise than PIP or 2DVD, which provide similar precision once the effects of the PIP image compression algorithm are taken into account. Both PIP and MASC use shape-fitting algorithms to measure aspect ratio. While our analysis of the MASC aspect ratio suggests the measurements are reliable, our findings indicate that both the ellipse and rectangle aspect ratios produced by PIP under-performed considerably due to the shortcomings of the PIP shape-fitting techniques. That said, we also demonstrate that reliable measurements of aspect ratio can be retrieved from PIP by reprocessing the PIP images using either the MASC shape-fitting technique or a tensor-based ellipse-fitting technique. Because of differences in instrument design, 2DVD produces measurements of particle horizontal and vertical extent rather than length and width. Furthermore, the 2DVD measurements of particle horizontal extent can be contaminated by horizontal particle motion. Our findings indicate that, although the correction technique used to remove the horizontal motion contamination performs remarkably well with snowflakes despite being designed for use with rain drops, the 2DVD measurements of particle horizontal extent are potentially unreliable.

Kaylee M. Wells ◽  
Mary Baumel ◽  
Catherine D. McCusker

The size and shape of the tetrapod limb play central roles in their functionality and the overall physiology of the organism. In this minireview we will discuss observations on mutant animal models and humans, which show that the growth and final size of the limb is most impacted by factors that regulate either limb bud patterning or the elongation of the long bones. We will also apply the lessons that have been learned from embryos to how growth could be regulated in regenerating limb structures and outline the challenges that are unique to regenerating animals.

2022 ◽  
Vol 354 ◽  
pp. 00046
Gabriela Pupăzan ◽  
Cosmin Colda ◽  
Tiberiu Csaszar ◽  
Adriana Andriș ◽  
Dănuț Grecea

Explosive atmospheres can be caused by gases, vapours, mists, dust, lint or fibres of flammable substance. If enough substance and air are mixed, the imminence of an explosion depends on probability and efficiency of the ignition source. Hazardous areas classified in sectors must be protected from ignition sources. Equipment and protective systems intended for use in potentially explosive atmospheres should be selected to meet the appropriate requirements for protective equipment and systems. The current paper aims to identify opportunities for standardization of pressurized equipment. The first part of the paper presents the risk of explosion associated with the presence of flammable substances and protection against explosions. The concept and opportunities of using pressurization are described in the second part of the paper. The third part refers to considerations regarding size and shape of pressurized equipment. A synthesis of pressurized equipment’s offer - dimensions, shape and functional role, is presented in the last part of the paper. Among the conclusions the existence of a gauge profile that depends on purpose, volume, operating position and assembly of the equipment, was mentioned.

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