reproductive outcomes
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Wang-Yu Cai ◽  
Xi Luo ◽  
Jianyuan Song ◽  
Danpin Ji ◽  
Jun Zhu ◽  

Objective: To evaluate the effect of hyperinsulinemia (HI) and insulin resistance (IR) on endocrine, metabolic, and reproductive outcomes in women without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) undergoing assisted reproduction.Materials and Methods: The study included 1,104 non-PCOS women undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection-fresh embryo transfer. HI was evaluated by serum fasting insulin (FIN), and IR was evaluated by homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). In addition, biometric, sex hormone, and metabolic parameters were measured. Independent t-test, linear, and logistic regression examined associations between HI, IR, and endocrine, metabolic, ovarian stimulation characteristics, and reproductive outcomes.Results: Women with HI and IR had lower levels of progesterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, estradiol, high-density lipoproteins, and increased levels of triglycerides low-density lipoproteins. For ovarian stimulation characteristics, those with HI and IR had a longer duration of stimulation, a higher total gonadotropin dose, and a lower peak estradiol level. Linear regression confirmed these associations. For reproductive outcomes, HI and IR were not associated with clinical pregnancy, live birth, and miscarriage.Conclusions: HI and IR did not impair reproductive outcomes in non-PCOS women undergoing assisted reproduction.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (12) ◽  
pp. 4422
Renata Bortolus ◽  
Francesca Filippini ◽  
Sonia Cipriani ◽  
Daniele Trevisanuto ◽  
Francesco Cavallin ◽  

Folic acid (FA) supplementation prevents neural tube defects (NTDs), but the effects on other reproductive outcomes are unclear. While common recommendation is 0.4 mg/day in addition to regular nutrition, the most appropriate dose of FA is still under debate. We investigated the effects of a higher dose of periconception FA on reducing adverse reproductive outcomes. In this multicenter double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT), 1060 women (aged 18–44 years and planning a pregnancy) were randomly assigned to receive 4.0 mg or 0.4 mg of FA daily. The primary outcome was the occurrence of congenital malformations (CMs). A composite outcome including one or more adverse pregnancy outcomes was also evaluated. A total of 431 women had a natural conception within 1 year. The primary outcome occurred in 8/227 (3.5%) women receiving 4.0 mg FA and 9/204 (4.4%) women receiving 0.4 mg FA (RR 0.80; 95%CI 0.31 to 2.03). The composite outcome occurred in 43/227 (18.9%) women receiving 4.0 mg FA and 75/204 (36.8%) women receiving 0.4 mg FA (RR 0.51; 95%CI 0.40 to 0.68). FA 4.0 mg supplementation was not associated with different occurrence of CMs, compared to FA 0.4 mg supplementation. However, FA 4.0 mg supplementation was associated with lower occurrence of other adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Dragan D. Micic ◽  
Hermann Toplak ◽  
Dusan D. Micic ◽  
Snezana P. Polovina

SummaryThe presence of obesity may significantly influence female fertility through various mechanisms. Impairment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis in obese women may induce anovulation and infertility. Obesity may have an effect on women’s spontaneous and assisted conception rates, increased miscarriage rates, premature labor, stillbirth and perinatal risks, and menstrual irregularity. It has been suggested that weight loss improves reproductive outcomes due to fertility amelioration and an improvement in menstrual irregularity and ovulation. It is still not known which weight reduction procedures (changes in lifestyle, pharmacological management or bariatric intervention) result in optimal outcome on infertility. Currently, bariatric surgery is defined as the best available method for the management of obesity and its associated diseases.We have analyzed literature facts about effects of bariatric surgery on the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and sexual dysfunction in obesity and pregnancy in obesity. Immediate positive effects of bariatric surgery are evident at the moment, while for long-term outcomes more prolonged follow-up investigations should be done.

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