combustion processes
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Fuel ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 308 ◽  
pp. 122050
Author(s):  
Emile Atallah ◽  
Françoise Defoort ◽  
Matthieu Campargue ◽  
Alexander Pisch ◽  
Capucine Dupont

Paliva ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 141-148
Author(s):  
Hana Lisá ◽  
Martin Lisý ◽  
Patrik Elbl ◽  
Marek Baláš ◽  
Tereza Zlevorová ◽  
...  

The characteristic properties of non-wood biomass used in combustion processes are monitored, such as water content, ash, volatile matter. Biomass is usually not homogenous and of suitable dimensions for these determinations. This is the reason for the necessary adjustment of samples for analysis. But modifying the samples may change their properties. In this publication, the influence of the grinding process in a rotor mill on the content of water, volatile matter and ash in non-wood biomass samples was studied. Samples of flax, Crambe abyssinica, amaranth and rye were analyzed. All analyses showed moisture loss from the sample during grinding and in the case of flax, the loss of volatile matter was observed. It means the rotor mill is suitable for sample preparation prior to analysis. But for oil plants it is necessary to choose another mill or adjustment method.


Author(s):  
Alexsandr Tarasov ◽  
Oksana Lytvynenko ◽  
Irina Myhaylova

Modern CFD methods for calculating combustion processes make it possible to take into account changes in temperatures, heat loads, rates of coolants, as well as further changes in fuel quality. To develop the skills of CFD design and understanding of combustion processes among future specialists in thermophysical specialties, work was carried out to simulate the burner device of a waste heat boiler. For the study, the design of the gas burner of the waste heat boiler RB-70-4.0-440, which operates as a part of the power unit at the LLC “Rubezhansky Cardboard and Container Plant” in the city of Rubezhnoe, was selected. When constructing a geometric model, the hydraulic resistance to the flow of the supply and distribution manifolds was taken into account. To simplify the calculations, the problem was carried out in a two-dimensional, axisymmetric formulation. Analyzing the computational combustion models, the Non-Premixe Combustion model was chosen, which made it possible to take into account the entry of fuel and oxidizer into the reaction zone by two different flows, as well as turbulent diffusion flame propagation. Six variants of models were investigated: the first three variants with a flame tube with a solid disc with diameters of 32, 48, 56 mm, the next three variants, had a burner with a discontinuous disk 32 mm in diameter at a distance of 6, 16, 32 mm from the flame tube. As a result of the research, the optimal shape of the burner was chosen, which corresponds to model 4, and provides a high-quality combustion process, as evidenced by the high temperature of the torch and the lowest temperature at the disk. The conducted research gives future masters the skills of modeling combustion processes in power equipment.


Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 209
Author(s):  
Mónica Antunes ◽  
Rodrigo Lino Santos ◽  
João Pereira ◽  
Paulo Rocha ◽  
Ricardo Bayão Horta ◽  
...  

Currently, the production of one ton of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) releases considerable amounts of CO2 into the atmosphere. As the need and demand for this material grows exponentially, it has become a challenge to increase its production at a time when climate-related problems represent a major global concern. The two main CO2 contributors in this process are fossil fuel combustion to heat the rotary kiln and the chemical reaction associated with the calcination process, in the production of the clinker, the main component of OPC. The current paper presents a critical review of the existent alternative clinker technologies (ACTs) that are under an investigation trial phase or under restricted use for niche applications and that lead to reduced emissions of CO2. Also, the possibility of transition of clinker production from traditional rotary kilns based on fuel combustion processes to electrification is discussed, since this may lead to the partial or even complete elimination of the CO2 combustion-related emissions, arising from the heating of the clinker kiln.


Catalysts ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 1
Author(s):  
Elena Gorbova ◽  
Fotini Tzorbatzoglou ◽  
Costas Molochas ◽  
Dimitris Chloros ◽  
Anatoly Demin ◽  
...  

The rapid development of science, technology, and engineering in the 21st century has offered a remarkable rise in our living standards. However, at the same time, serious environmental issues have emerged, such as acid rain and the greenhouse effect, which are associated with the ever-increasing need for energy consumption, 85% of which comes from fossil fuels combustion. From this combustion process, except for energy, the main greenhouse gases-carbon dioxide and steam-are produced. Moreover, during industrial processes, many hazardous gases are emitted. For this reason, gas-detecting devices, such as electrochemical gas sensors able to analyze the composition of a target atmosphere in real time, are important for further improving our living quality. Such devices can help address environmental issues and inform us about the presence of dangerous gases. Furthermore, as non-renewable energy sources run out, there is a need for energy saving. By analyzing the composition of combustion emissions of automobiles or industries, combustion processes can be optimized. This review deals with electrochemical gas sensors based on solid oxide electrolytes, which are employed for the detection of hazardous gasses at high temperatures and aggressive environments. The fundamentals, the principle of operation, and the configuration of potentiometric, amperometric, combined (amperometric-potentiometric), and mixed-potential gas sensors are presented. Moreover, the results of previous studies on carbon oxides (COx), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrogen (H2), oxygen (O2), ammonia (NH3), and humidity (steam) electrochemical sensors are reported and discussed. Emphasis is given to sensors based on oxygen ion and proton-conducting electrolytes.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Adrian Eugen Cioabla ◽  
Francisc Popescu

The present paper involves applicative research in the field of biogas production with the accent on small laboratory scale installations built for biogas production, preliminary testing of substrate for biogas production and combustion applications for biogas-like mixtures. The interconnected aspect of the presented material involves cumulative expertise in multidisciplinary fields of interest and continuous development of possibilities to determine the energetic potential of substrates subjected to biodegradable fermentation conversion for further applications. The research analyzed the combustion behavior of biogas with different methane/carbon dioxide ratio without and in the presence of specific catalysts. Also, laboratory analysis on biomass substrates for determining their physical and chemical potential for different applications was performed. The main conclusions are drawn revolve around the untapped potential of the different types of biomasses that are not commonly used in the production of renewable energy carriers, like biogas, and also the potential use of residual biomass in combustion processes for an enclosed life cycle from cradle to the grave. The study involving the use of catalysts in biogas combustion processes present possible solutions which can be developed and implemented for increasing the combustion quality by using relatively cost-effective materials for the production of catalytic materials.


2021 ◽  
pp. 146808742110655
Author(s):  
Jorge Pulpeiro González ◽  
Carrie M Hall ◽  
Christopher P Kolodziej

In internal combustion engine research, cylinder pressure measurements provide valuable information about the underlying thermodynamic and combustion processes, and are typically collected in ensembles of several 100 traces. Although in some particular fields of combustion research all traces are analyzed, in most cases only one trace is studied because analyzing all the traces is impractical due to the large number of collected samples. Instead, an ensemble-averaged pressure trace is commonly calculated and used for analysis. However, this pressure trace is highly smoothed and dynamic information is lost during the averaging process. With the average trace, pressure rise rates are lower and pressure oscillations such as the ones resulting from combustion knock are lost. In this work, a statistical method was developed to determine the “most representative cycle,” which is the cycle from the ensemble that has the pressure trace most representative of the engine operating condition. Eleven characteristic parameters are computed from each pressure trace and probabilistic distributions are obtained for each of the parameters using all the traces in the ensemble. Finally, the most representative cycle is selected by means of a cost function minimization. The benefits of this method are illustrated using experimental data from four very different engine platforms, under four different combustion modes and over a range of operating conditions.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (2-2021) ◽  
pp. 107-110
Author(s):  
K. V. Zakharov ◽  
◽  
D. E. Andreev ◽  
V. I. Yukhvid ◽  
N. Yu. Khomenko ◽  
...  

This paper discusses the synthesis regularities of new composite materials via combustion processes and their features of physicochemical transformations for task of a modern technology. In early studies, the authors showed the possibility of synthesizing composite materials via centrifugal SHS metallurgy, in which the combustion of thermite mixtures and the chemical transformations were studied. The compositions, structures and mechanical properties of the synthesized materials were also investigated


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