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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Xiaomei Xue ◽  
Xuan Yuan ◽  
Lin Han ◽  
Xinde Li ◽  
Tony R. Merriman ◽  

IntroductionAchieving a goal of serum urate levels in patients with gout is an important way to prevent gout and its complications while it remains difficult with a low targeting rate worldwidely. Currently, hyperuricemia classification has not been widely applied to the management of gout owing to insufficient clinical evidences. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of achieving target urate based on hyperuricemia classification in Chinese patients with gout.MethodsIn this prospective study, patients with gout receiving urate lowering therapy with benzbromarone were assigned to two groups, a renal underexcretion and an unclassified type. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving the serum urate target (<360 μmol/L) during the 12-week study. The frequency of acute gout attacks as well as physical and chemical indicators were secondary endpoints.ResultsTarget serum urate level was achieved in 60.5% of underexcretors compared with 39.0% of patients of the unclassified type at week 12 (P = 0.002). Blood glucose and cholesterol levels were lower in the underexcretor group compared with the unclassified type group at the end of the trial, without significant different frequencies in gout flare during the study. In subgroup analysis, stratified by body mass index and estimated glomerular filtration rate, the proportion of patients with serum urate <360 μmol/L was greater in the underexcretion compared with the unclassified type group.ConclusionsThe increased achievement of target serum urate in the underexcretion group supports the use of a clinical hyperuricemia typing treatment strategy for gout.

Pharmacy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 16
Sarah Grace Gunter ◽  
Mary Joyce B. Wingler ◽  
David A. Cretella ◽  
Jamie L. Wagner ◽  
Katie E. Barber ◽  

Limited data are available regarding optimal antimicrobial therapy for Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) in pediatric patients. The purpose of this study was to assess clinical characteristics and outcomes associated with intravenous (IV) versus oral step-down treatment of pediatric SAB. This study evaluated patients aged 3 months to 18 years that received at least 72 h of inpatient treatment for SAB. The primary endpoint was 30-day readmission. Secondary endpoints included hospital length of stay and inpatient mortality. One hundred and one patients were included in this study. The median age was 7.9 years. Patients who underwent oral step-down were less likely to be immunocompromised and more likely to have community-acquired SAB from osteomyelitis or skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). More patients in the IV therapy group had a 30-day readmission (10 (25.6%) vs. 3 (5.3%), p = 0.006). Mortality was low (5 (5%)) and not statistically different between groups. Length of stay was greater in patients receiving IV therapy only (11 vs. 7 days, p = 0.001). In this study, over half of the patients received oral step-down therapy and 30-day readmission was low for this group. Oral therapy appears to be safe and effective for patients with SAB from osteomyelitis or SSTIs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 168-174
Sidharth Sraban Routray

Background: Transmuscular Quadratus Lumborum Block (TQLB) is a newer modality for postoperative pain management. But, its efficacy after laparoscopic colorectal surgery is little researched. The aim of our trial was to access the analgesic efficacy of TQLB in colorectal surgery.Methods:This study was done in 64 patients posted for colorectal surgery who were divided into two groups of 32 each. TQLB was given bilaterally in group RQ with 20 ml of 0.375% ropivacaine and in group SQ with 20 ml saline. Patients were operated under general anesthesia and were examined for pain at different time points postoperatively. Time required for first analgesic demand was our primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints were total rescue analgesia (paracetamol) required in 24 hrs, pain scores, nausea, vomiting, sedation and any other complications.Results:The time required for first analgesic demand was 3.9± 0.8hrs in RQ group and 0.1± 0.2 hrs in group SQ which was statistically significant. The total paracetamol consumption in 24 hours was1.2± 0.4 gm in group RQ and 2.9± 0.7gm in group SQ ,the difference being remarkable.Conclusion:Transmuscular quadratus lumborum block can produce quality analgesia after laparoscopic colorectal surgery. TQLB not only improves the visual analogue scale (VAS) score but also decreases the rescue analgesic consumption without any complications.

Karl-Christian Bergmann ◽  
Jennifer Raab ◽  
Linda Krause ◽  
Sylvia Becker ◽  
Sebastian Kugler ◽  

Summary Purpose The long-term effects of targeted micronutrition with the holoBLG lozenge in house dust mite (HDM) allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC) patients were evaluated at a follow-up visit in an allergen exposure chamber (AEC). Methods Patients who were supplemented for 3‑months with the holoBLG lozenge in a previous study with two controlled HDM-AEC challenges [visits: V1, V3] were recruited for a third AEC challenge (V5) 7–8 months after cessation of supplementation. Symptoms (nose, conjunctival, bronchial, others), well-being, and lung function parameters were recorded exactly as in the previous study. Primary endpoint was change in median Total Nasal Symptom Score (TNSS) at V5 compared to V1. Secondary endpoints included e.g. change in median Total Symptom Score (TSS) and the exploratory analysis of temporal evolution of symptom scores using linear mixed effects models. Results Of the 32 patients included in the original study, 27 could be recruited for the follow-up visit with a third AEC challenge. An improvement of 20% (p = 0.15) in the primary endpoint TNSS [V1: 2.5 (interquartile range [IQR]: 1–4), V5: 2.0 (IQR: 1–3)] was observed; 40% (p = 0.04) improvement was seen for the TSS [V1: 5.0 (IQR: 3–9), V5: 3.0 (IQR: 2–5.5)]. Analysis of temporal evolution of all symptom scores, and the personal well-being revealed sustained, clinically meaningful improvement at V5 compared to V1. No relevant lung function parameter differences were observed. Conclusions Sustained long-term reduction of TNSS (primary endpoint) and sustained long-term improvement of secondary endpoints (temporal evolution of all symptom scores and well-being) were demonstrated 7–8 months after cessation of holoBLG supplementation, indicative of a long-lasting nature of immune resilience induced by holoBLG. Trial registration The study was registered at (NCT04872868).

2022 ◽  
pp. 106002802110691
Hannah L. Niss ◽  
Adham Mohamed ◽  
Timothy P. Berry ◽  
Timothy M. Saettele ◽  
Michelle M. Haines ◽  

Background Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) management is primarily supportive. Pulmonary vasodilators, such as inhaled epoprostenol (iEPO), have been shown to improve PaO2:FiO2 (PF) and are used as adjunctive therapy. Objective To identify the positive response rate and variables associated with response to iEPO in adults with ARDS. A positive response to iEPO was defined as a 10% improvement in PF within 6 hours. Methods This retrospective study included adults with ARDS treated with iEPO. The primary endpoint was the variables associated with a positive response to iEPO. Secondary endpoints were positive response rate and the change in PF and SpO2:FiO2 within 6 hours. Statistical analysis included multivariable regression. Results Three hundred thirty-one patients were included. As baseline PF increased, the odds of responding to iEPO decreased (odds ratio [OR], 0.752, 95% CI, 0.69-0.819, p < 0.001). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related ARDS (OR 0.478, 95% CI, 0.281-0.814, p = 0.007) was associated with decreased odds of a positive response to iEPO. The total population had a 68.3% positive response rate to iEPO. SARS-CoV-2-related ARDS and non-SARS-CoV-2-related ARDS had a 59.5% and 72.7% positive response rate, respectively. iEPO significantly improved PF (71 vs 95, P < 0.001) in the whole population. Conclusion and Relevance iEPO was associated with a positive effect in a majority of moderate-to-severe ARDS patients, including patients with SARS-CoV-2-related ARDS. Lower baseline PF and non-SARS-CoV-2-related ARDS were significantly associated with a positive response to iEPO. The ability to predict which patients will respond to iEPO can facilitate better utilization.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 390
Takehiro Funamizu ◽  
Hiroshi Iwata ◽  
Yuichi Chikata ◽  
Shinichiro Doi ◽  
Hirohisa Endo ◽  

Background: Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on chronic hemodialysis who are complicated by coronary artery disease (CAD) are at very high risk of cardiovascular (CV) events and mortality. However, the prognostic benefit of statins, which is firmly established in the general population, is still under debate in this particular population. Methods: As a part of a prospective single-center percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) registry database, this study included consecutive patients on chronic hemodialysis who underwent PCI for the first time between 2000 and 2016 (n = 201). Participants were divided into 2 groups by following 2 factors, such as (1) with or without statin, and (2) with or without high LDL-C (> and ≤LDL-C = 93 mg/dL, median) at the time of PCI. The primary endpoint was defined as CV death, and the secondary endpoints included all-cause and non-CV death, and 3 point major cardiovascular adverse events (3P-MACE) which is the composite of CV death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and stroke. The median and range of the follow-up period were 2.8, 0–15.2 years, respectively. Results: Kaplan–Meier analyses showed significantly lower cumulative incidences of primary and secondary endpoints other than non-CV deaths in patients receiving statins. Conversely, no difference was observed when patients were divided by the median LDL-C at the time of PCI (p = 0.11). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis identified statins as an independent predictor of reduced risk of CV death (Hazard ratio of statin use: 0.43, 95% confidence interval 0.18–0.88, p = 0.02), all-cause death (HR: 0.50, 95%CI 0.29–0.84, p = 0.007) and 3P-MACE (HR: 0.50, 95%CI 0.25–0.93, p = 0.03). Conclusions: Statins were associated with reduced risk of adverse outcomes in patients with ESRD following PCI.

2022 ◽  
Qiang Hu ◽  
Quan-Yu Zhang ◽  
Cheng-Fei Peng ◽  
Zhuang Ma ◽  
Ya-Ling Han

Abstract Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of nicotinamide-based supportive therapy in lymphopenia for patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Methods: 24 patients diagnosed with the COVID-19 were randomly divided into two groups (n=12) during hospitalization in the ratio of 1:1. Based on the conventional treatment, the treatment group was given 100mg nicotinamide, five times a day. The control group only received routine treatments. The primary endpoint was the change in absolute lymphocyte counts. The secondary endpoints included both the in-hospital death and the composite endpoint of aggravation, according to upgraded oxygen therapy, improvement of nursing level, and ward rounds of superior physicians for changes of conditions. Results: The full blood counts before and after receiving the nicotinamide were comparable in each group (all P>0.05). Before and after receiving the nicotinamide, mean absolute lymphocyte counts were similar between the two groups ([0.94±0.26]*109/L versus [0.89±0.19]*109/L, P=0.565; [1.15±0.48]*109/L versus [1.02±0.28]*109/L, P=0.445, respectively). Therefore, there was no statistically significant difference in the lymphocyte improvement rate between the two groups (23.08±46.10 versus 16.52±24.10, P=0.67). There was also no statistically significant difference for the secondary endpoints between the two groups.Conclusion: Among patients with COVID-19, there was no statistically significant difference in change of full blood counts and the absolute lymphocyte counts before and after intervention in both groups. Therefore, no new evidence was found for the effect of niacinamide on lymphopenia in patients with COVID-19.Trial registration:, NCT04910230. Registered 1 June 2021-retrospectively registered.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 348
Matteo Pagnesi ◽  
Luca Baldetti ◽  
Alberto Aimo ◽  
Riccardo Maria Inciardi ◽  
Daniela Tomasoni ◽  

Background: The new heart failure (HF) therapies of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i), vericiguat, and omecamtiv mecarbil do not act primarily through the neuro-hormonal blockade, but have shown clinical benefits in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). However, their respective efficacies remain unclear. Our aim was to evaluate the relative efficacy of new drugs for HFrEF. Methods: We performed a network meta-analysis (NMA) of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing SGLT2i, vericiguat, omecamtiv mecarbil, and placebo in HFrEF patients. The primary endpoint was the composite of cardiovascular death (CVD) or HF hospitalization (CVD-HF); secondary endpoints were CVD, all-cause death, and HF hospitalization (HFH). Results: Twelve RCTs (n = 23,861 patients) were included. A significant reduction in CVD-HF was observed with SGLT2i compared with placebo (risk ratio (RR) 0.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71–0.83), vericiguat (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.75–0.93), and omecamtiv mecarbil (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.72–0.88). No significant difference was observed between vericiguat and omecamtiv mecarbil (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.87–1.04). SGLT2i were superior to placebo and omecamtiv mecarbil for all individual secondary endpoints (CVD, all-cause death, and HFH), and also to vericiguat for HFH. SGLT2i ranked as the most effective therapy for all endpoints, and vericiguat, omecamtiv mecarbil, and placebo ranked as the second, third, and last options, respectively, for the primary endpoint. Conclusions: In patients with HFrEF on standard-of-care therapy, SGLT2i therapy was associated with a reduced risk of CVD-HF compared to placebo, vericiguat, and omecamtiv mecarbil. Furthermore, SGLT2i were superior to placebo and omecamtiv mecarbil for CVD, all-cause death, and HFH, and also to vericiguat for HFH.

2022 ◽  
Charles Bruen ◽  
Mukhtar Al-Saadi ◽  
Edward Michelson ◽  
Maged Tanios ◽  
Raul Mendoza-Ayala ◽  

Abstract Background: Calcium release-activated calcium (CRAC) channel inhibitors block proinflammatory cytokine release, preserve endothelial integrity and may effectively treat patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: CARDEA was a phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the addition of Auxora, a CRAC channel inhibitor, to corticosteroids and standard of care in adults with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. The primary endpoint was time to recovery through Day 60, with secondary endpoints of all-cause mortality at Day 60 and Day 30. Due to declining rates of COVID-19 hospitalizations and encroachment of prohibited medications as standard of care, the trial was stopped early. Results: The pre-specified efficacy set consisted of the 261 patients with a baseline imputed PaO2/FiO2 £200 with 130 and 131 in the Auxora and placebo groups, respectively. Time to recovery was 7 vs. 10 days (P=0.0979) for patients who received Auxora vs. placebo, respectively. The all-cause mortality rate at Day 60 was 13.8% with Auxora vs. 20.6% with placebo (P=0.1449); Day 30 all-cause mortality was 7.7% and 17.6%, respectively (P=0.0165). Similar trends were noted in patients on high flow nasal cannula at baseline or those with a baseline imputed PaO2/FiO2 ≤100. Serious adverse events occurred less frequently in patients treated with Auxora vs. placebo. Conclusions: Auxora was safe and well tolerated with strong signals in both time to recovery and all-cause mortality through Day 60 in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Further studies of Auxora in combination with corticosteroids and other immunomodulatory agents are warranted.Trial registration: NCT04345614

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Liselotte Hol ◽  
Sunny G. L. H. Nijbroek ◽  
Ary Serpa Neto ◽  
Sabrine N. T. Hemmes ◽  
Goran Hedenstierna ◽  

Abstract Background The aim of this analysis is to determine geo–economic variations in epidemiology, ventilator settings and outcome in patients receiving general anesthesia for surgery. Methods Posthoc analysis of a worldwide study in 29 countries. Lower and upper middle–income countries (LMIC and UMIC), and high–income countries (HIC) were compared. The coprimary endpoint was the risk for and incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPC); secondary endpoints were intraoperative ventilator settings, intraoperative complications, hospital stay and mortality. Results Of 9864 patients, 4% originated from LMIC, 11% from UMIC and 85% from HIC. The ARISCAT score was 17.5 [15.0–26.0] in LMIC, 16.0 [3.0–27.0] in UMIC and 15.0 [3.0–26.0] in HIC (P = .003). The incidence of PPC was 9.0% in LMIC, 3.2% in UMIC and 2.5% in HIC (P < .001). Median tidal volume in ml kg− 1 predicted bodyweight (PBW) was 8.6 [7.7–9.7] in LMIC, 8.4 [7.6–9.5] in UMIC and 8.1 [7.2–9.1] in HIC (P < .001). Median positive end–expiratory pressure in cmH2O was 3.3 [2.0–5.0]) in LMIC, 4.0 [3.0–5.0] in UMIC and 5.0 [3.0–5.0] in HIC (P < .001). Median driving pressure in cmH2O was 14.0 [11.5–18.0] in LMIC, 13.5 [11.0–16.0] in UMIC and 12.0 [10.0–15.0] in HIC (P < .001). Median fraction of inspired oxygen in % was 75 [50–80] in LMIC, 50 [50–63] in UMIC and 53 [45–70] in HIC (P < .001). Intraoperative complications occurred in 25.9% in LMIC, in 18.7% in UMIC and in 37.1% in HIC (P < .001). Hospital mortality was 0.0% in LMIC, 1.3% in UMIC and 0.6% in HIC (P = .009). Conclusion The risk for and incidence of PPC is higher in LMIC than in UMIC and HIC. Ventilation management could be improved in LMIC and UMIC. Trial registration, identifier: NCT01601223.

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