The Euro 4 regulation, applicable since 2016 for L-category vehicles (i.e., two and three-wheelers, and mini cars) reduced the emission limits, but also introduced a new cycle, the WMTC (World Harmonized Motorcycle Test Cycle). The emission studies of Euro 4 motorcycles are limited, and most importantly there are no published studies comparing the results of different laboratories applying the new cycle. In this study we compared the particle and gaseous pollutants of one Euro 4 motorcycle measured in two laboratories in 2017 and 2020. The gaseous pollutant results had a variance (one standard deviation of the means) of 0.5% for CO2, 4–19% for CO, NOx, HC (hydrocarbons) and SPN (Solid Particle Number). The particulate matter mass results had higher variance of 50–60%. Additional tests with open configuration to mimic dilution at the tailpipe gave equivalent results to the closed configuration for the gaseous pollutants and SPN. The total particles (including volatiles) had significant differences between the two configurations, with the closed configuration giving higher results. The main conclusion of this study is that the new procedures have very good reproducibility, even for the SPN that is not regulated for L-category vehicles. However, the measurement of total particles needs attention due to the high sensitivity of volatile particles to the sampling conditions.
With the further tightening of emission regulations and the introduction of real driving emission tests (RDE), the simulative prediction of emissions is becoming increasingly important for the development of future low-emission internal combustion engines. In this context, gas-exchange simulation can be used as a powerful tool for the evaluation of new design concepts. However, the simplified description of the combustion chamber can make the prediction of complex in-cylinder phenomena like emission formation quite challenging. The present work focuses on the prediction of gaseous pollutants from a spark-ignition (SI) direct injection (DI) engine with 1D–0D gas-exchange simulations. The accuracy of the simulative prediction regarding gaseous pollutant emissions is assessed based on the comparison with measurement data obtained with a research single cylinder engine (SCE). Multiple variations of engine operating parameters – for example, load, speed, air-to-fuel ratio, valve timing – are taken into account to verify the predictivity of the simulation toward changing engine operating conditions. Regarding the unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions, phenomenological models are used to estimate the contribution of the piston top-land crevice as well as flame wall-quenching and oil-film fuel adsorption-desorption mechanisms. Regarding CO and NO emissions, multiple approaches to describe the burned zone kinetics in combination with a two-zone 0D combustion chamber model are evaluated. In particular, calculations with reduced reaction kinetics are compared with simplified kinetic descriptions. At engine warm operation, the HC models show an accuracy mainly within 20%. The predictions for the NO emissions follow the trend of the measurements with changing engine operating parameters and all modeled results are mainly within ±20%. Regarding CO emissions, the simplified kinetic models are not capable to predict CO at stoichiometric conditions with errors below 30%. With the usage of a reduced kinetic mechanism, a better prediction capability of CO at stoichiometric air-to-fuel ratio could be achieved.