Morphology Change
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Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 186
Guan-Xuan Wu ◽  
Chun-Yu Chen ◽  
Chun-Shien Wu ◽  
Lain-Chyr Hwang ◽  
Shan-Wei Yang ◽  

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a joint disorder characterized by the progressive degeneration of articular cartilage. The phenotype and metabolism behavior of chondrocytes plays crucial roles in maintaining articular cartilage function. Chondrocytes dedifferentiate and lose their cartilage phenotype after successive subcultures or inflammation and synthesize collagen I and X (COL I and COL X). Farnesol, a sesquiterpene compound, has an anti-inflammatory effect and promotes collagen synthesis. However, its potent restoration effects on differentiated chondrocytes have seldom been evaluated. The presented study investigated farnesol’s effect on phenotype restoration by examining collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis from dedifferentiated chondrocytes. The results indicated that chondrocytes gradually dedifferentiated through cellular morphology change, reduced expressions of COL II and SOX9, increased the expression of COL X and diminished GAG synthesis during four passages of subcultures. Pure farnesol and hyaluronan-encapsulated farnesol nanoparticles promote COL II synthesis. GAG synthesis significantly increased 2.5-fold after a farnesol treatment of dedifferentiated chondrocytes, indicating the restoration of chondrocyte functions. In addition, farnesol drastically increased the synthesis of COL II (2.5-fold) and GAG (15-fold) on interleukin-1β-induced dedifferentiated chondrocytes. A significant reduction of COL I, COL X and proinflammatory cytokine prostaglandin E2 was observed. In summary, farnesol may serve as a therapeutic agent in OA treatment.

ChemCatChem ◽  
2021 ◽  
Clemens Jonscher ◽  
Markus Seifert ◽  
Nils Kretzschmar ◽  
Mathias S. Marschall ◽  
Mai Le Anh ◽  

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (21) ◽  
pp. 7352
Bo Liu ◽  
Bin Yang ◽  
Sina Masoud-Ansari ◽  
Huina Wang ◽  
Mark Gahegan

The study of coastal processes is critical for the protection and development of beach amenities, infrastructure, and properties. Many studies of beach evolution rely on data collected using remote sensing and show that beach evolution can be characterized by a finite number of “beach states”. However, due to practical constraints, long-term data displaying all beach states are rare. Additionally, when the dataset is available, the accuracy of the classification is not entirely objective since it depends on the operator. To address this problem, we collected hourly coastal images and corresponding tidal data for more than 20 years (November 1998–August 2019). We classified the images into eight categories according to the classic beach state classification, defined as (1) reflective, (2) incident scaled bar, (3) non-rhythmic, attached bar, (4) attached rhythmic bar, (5) offshore rhythmic bar, (6) non-rhythmic, 3-D bar, (7) infragravity scaled 2-D bar, (8) dissipative. We developed a classification model based on convolutional neural networks (CNN). After image pre-processing with data enhancement, we compared different CNN models. The improved ResNext obtained the best and most stable classification with F1-score of 90.41% and good generalization ability. The classification results of the whole dataset were transformed into time series data. MDLats algorithms were used to find frequent temporal patterns in morphology changes. Combining the pattern of coastal morphology change and the corresponding tidal data, we also analyzed the characteristics of beach morphology and the changes in morphodynamic states.

2021 ◽  
L Schemmelmann ◽  
M Brand ◽  
D Kronenberg ◽  
R Stange

Micromachines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (11) ◽  
pp. 1295
Lijia Chen ◽  
Lun Cai ◽  
Lianbin Niu ◽  
Pan Guo ◽  
Qunliang Song

Although the effect of high temperature on the performance of organic solar cells has been widely investigated, it is inevitably influenced by the associated annealing effect (which usually leads to film morphology change and variation in electrical properties), which makes the discussion more sophisticated. In this study, we simplified the issue and investigated the influence of low temperatures (from room temperature to 77 K) on the photocurrent and internal/external quantum efficiency of a CuPc/C60 based solar cell. We found that besides the charge dynamic process (charge transport), one or more of the exciton dynamic processes, such as exciton diffusion and exciton dissociation, also play a significant role in affecting the photocurrent of organic solar cells at different temperatures. Additionally, the results showed that the temperature had negligible influence on the absorption of the CuPc film as well as the exciton generation process, but obviously influenced the other two exciton dynamic processes (exciton diffusion and exciton dissociation).

Munekazu Kanemitsu ◽  
Tomoyuki Nakasa ◽  
Yasunari Ikuta ◽  
Yuki Ota ◽  
Junichi Sumii ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (18) ◽  
pp. 8642
Xuyan Song ◽  
Min Wei ◽  
Xi Pan ◽  
Yunlu He ◽  
Xinjiao Cui ◽  

Fragrance is a commonly used substance in a number of commercial products, and fine control over the release behavior of the fragrance is essential for its successful application. Understanding the release behavior of the fragrance is the key to realizing the control of its release. Herein, we use tobacco leaf as the model substrate and investigate the mechanism of eugenol release from tobacco leaf. Our results show that interaction between eugenol and tobacco leaf is weak physical adsorption, and the eugenol release from tobacco leaf substrate is a temperature-dependent process. Further analysis on the release behavior reveals that eugenol release is closely associated with the morphology change of tobacco leaves under heating conditions. Our results provide insight into the release mechanism of fragrance from polymer substrate and may be useful for the future design of fragrance release systems.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Xiaodan Li ◽  
Jinliang Li ◽  
Wenchen Zhuo ◽  
Zhibin Li ◽  
Liang Ma ◽  

AbstractAs one of the promising anode materials, iron selenide has received much attention for potassium-ion batteries (KIBs). Nevertheless, volume expansion and sluggish kinetics of iron selenide result in the poor reversibility and stability during potassiation–depotassiation process. In this work, we develop iron selenide composite matching ether-based electrolyte for KIBs, which presents a reversible specific capacity of 356 mAh g−1 at 200 mA g−1 after 75 cycles. According to the measurement of mechanical properties, it is found that iron selenide composite also exhibits robust and elastic solid electrolyte interphase layer in ether-based electrolyte, contributing to the improvement in reversibility and stability for KIBs. To further investigate the electrochemical enhancement mechanism of ether-based electrolyte in KIBs, we also utilize in situ visualization technique to monitor the potassiation–depotassiation process. For comparison, iron selenide composite matching carbonate-based electrolyte presents vast morphology change during potassiation–depotassiation process. When changing to ether-based electrolyte, a few minor morphology changes can be observed. This phenomenon indicates an occurrence of homogeneous electrochemical reaction in ether-based electrolyte, which results in a stable performance for potassium-ion (K-ion) storage. We believe that our work will provide a new perspective to visually monitor the potassium-ion storage process and guide the improvement in electrode material performance.

Membranes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (7) ◽  
pp. 540
Chao Fang ◽  
Jiaxing Yao ◽  
Xingyu Xia ◽  
Yuan Lin

As one of the most important cellular compartments, the nucleus contains genetic materials and separates them from the cytoplasm with the nuclear envelope (NE), a thin membrane that is susceptible to deformations caused by intracellular forces. Interestingly, accumulating evidence has also indicated that the morphology change of NE is tightly related to nuclear mechanotransduction and the pathogenesis of diseases such as cancer and Hutchinson–Gilford Progeria Syndrome. Theoretically, with the help of well-designed experiments, significant progress has been made in understanding the physical mechanisms behind nuclear shape transformation in different cellular processes as well as its biological implications. Here, we review different continuum-level (i.e., energy minimization, boundary integral and finite element-based) approaches that have been developed to predict the morphology and shape change of the cell nucleus. Essential gradients, relative advantages and limitations of each model will be discussed in detail, with the hope of sparking a greater research interest in this important topic in the future.

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