Systematic Description
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2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (7) ◽  
pp. 227-265
O. E. Osovsky ◽  
S. A. Dubrovskaya

The process of reception of M. M. Bakhtin’s scientific heritage over the past 25 years is analyzed in the review article. The focus of the authors is on identifying the stages and main directions, trends and achievements of modern Russian Bakhtin studies, determining the prospects for further research. The relevance of the review lies in the need for an objective reconstruction of the process of studying the ideas and heritage of M. M. Bakhtin in Russia and abroad, primarily over the past 25 years. It is noted that the works of M. M. Bakhtin are the most cited in scientific literary criticism and Bakhtin studies have become an independent branch of interdisciplinary research. The analysis revealed the role in the development of Russian Bakhtin studies of such a phenomenon as a collection of works by a scientist, Bakhtin studies journals and publications, publications of leading researchers. Conclusions are made that in 1996—2020 Russian Bakhtin studies have reached a fundamentally new level in the development of the scientist’s heritage, made a significant contribution to the study of his key ideas and concepts, completed a preliminary reconstruction of his scientific biography, carried out a systematic description of his terminological language and scientific theory as a whole, indicated the points of the necessary dialogue between Russian scientists and foreign colleagues.

2021 ◽  
shao yubao ◽  
Ji Dan ◽  
Bao Lanxin ◽  
Li Wenhao ◽  
Dai Jinchen ◽  

Abstract Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a refractory systemic autoimmune disease associated with synovial inflammation. Previous studies postulate that paeonol has good anti-arthritis effects on RA. However, its systematic description remains unknown. Herein, we used bioinformatics tools to evaluate the mechanism of paeonol in arthritis systematically. A macrophage model was employed to study the differentially expressed genes between the inflammation and normal group, revealing 169 inflammation-related genes. Another 275 key genes affected by paeonol were identified in the same model. Three key genes, FPR2, Cd83, and Cfb, were obtained after combining the two data sets. Paeonol inhibited the release of inflammatory factors and the proliferation of synovial. However, its inhibitory effect was blocked by Fpr2 blocker WRW4. In summary, paeonol can inhibit the development of arthritis through FPR2. This provides new scope for the design and development of FPR2 ligands.

Andreas H. Mahnken ◽  
Esther Boullosa Seoane ◽  
Allesandro Cannavale ◽  
Michiel W. de Haan ◽  
Rok Dezman ◽  

Abstract Background Interventional radiology (IR) has come a long way to a nowadays UEMS-CESMA endorsed clinical specialty. Over the last decades IR became an essential part of modern medicine, delivering minimally invasive patient-focused care. Purpose To provide principles for delivering high quality of care in IR. Methods Systematic description of clinical skills, principles of practice, organizational standards and infrastructure needed for the provision of professional IR services. Results There are IR procedures for almost all body parts and organs, covering a broad range of medical conditions. In many cases IR procedures are the mainstay of therapy, e.g. in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. In parallel the specialty moved from the delivery of a procedure towards taking care for a patient’s condition with the interventional radiologists taking ultimate responsibility for the patient’s outcomes. Conclusions The evolution from a technical specialty to a clinical specialty goes along with changing demands on how clinical care in IR is provided. The CIRSE Clinical Practice Manual provides interventional radiologist with a starting point for developing his or her IR practice as a clinician.

2021 ◽  
pp. 277-289

The gradual suspension of the institutions of the Republic of Serbia in the area of Kosovo and Metohija is the result of the dialogue that the representatives of the Albanian national minority are having with the Serbian political leadership. The first agreement, signed in 2013, formally and legally calls into question the survival and functioning of a number of institutions that function in accordance with the legislation of the RS and are of vital importance for the security of the local population. As an important part of the institutional arrangement and organization of the protection and rescue system, civil protection units were formed within four municipalities in the north of Kosmet, as well as in other parts south of the river Ibar. The main task of the trained and trained general purpose units was to protect people, material and cultural goods and the environment from natural disasters and technical-technological accidents. However, a section of the international community, along with Albanian political leaders, views the unit as a "paramilitary organization" (despite their humanitarian character), demanding their immediate disbandment and involvement in Kosovo's provisional institutions. The aim of this paper is a systematic description and analysis of the current security situation in the southern Serbian province as well as the role of civil protection units in maintaining a stable security situation. The paper uses the method of content analysis of a number of relevant documents describing the attempt to include members of civil protection units in the work of Kosovo's provisional institutions.

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (7) ◽  
pp. 1978
Brian D. Farr ◽  
Cynthia M. Otto ◽  
Julia E. Szymczak

The explosive detection canine (EDC) team is currently the best available mobile sensor capability in the fight against explosive threats. While the EDC can perform at a high level, the EDC team faces numerous factors during the search process that may degrade performance. Understanding these factors is key to effective selection, training, assessment, deployment, and operationalizable research. A systematic description of these factors is absent from the literature. This qualitative study leveraged the perspectives of expert EDC handlers, trainers, and leaders (n = 17) to determine the factors that degrade EDC performance. The participants revealed factors specific to utilization, the EDC team, and the physical, climate, operational, and explosive odor environments. Key results were the reality of performance degradation, the impact of the handler, and the importance of preparation. This study’s results can help improve EDC selection, training, assessment, and deployment and further research into sustaining EDC performance.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 203-217
Clemenciana MUKENGE

The systematic description of African Englishes, including Zimbabwean English (ZE) is gradually increasing in the continent’s ongoing sociolinguistic research. The purpose of this contribution is to investigate the progress currently made in stabilising the Zimbabwean variety of English since its emergence in the 1980s using Schneider’s (2007) Dynamic framework for stabilisation of “New Englishes”. ZE is perceived to be at the nativisation stage, encompassing indigenisation of Standard English before a full adoption into a new socio-cultural context. Evidence of nativisation includes phonological innovations and structural indigenisation of English. It is noted that complete nativisation would follow after full adoption and functionalisation by the speech community. Furthermore, the study establishes that the task at hand is to carry out in-depth research that probes deeper into ZE’s evolution process; explaining its key structural features and its sociolinguistic traits. This will uncover its general linguistic behaviour, functional role and possibly strengthen its visibility, use and eventual growth. One major limitation of the study is that its focus is restricted to the Zimbabwean variety of English. Recommended future studies should include comparative studies of the development of “New Englishes” in other outer circle regions, so as to methodologically inform the stabilisation process of ZE.

Cristina Trocin ◽  
Patrick Mikalef ◽  
Zacharoula Papamitsiou ◽  
Kieran Conboy

AbstractResponsible AI is concerned with the design, implementation and use of ethical, transparent, and accountable AI technology in order to reduce biases, promote fairness, equality, and to help facilitate interpretability and explainability of outcomes, which are particularly pertinent in a healthcare context. However, the extant literature on health AI reveals significant issues regarding each of the areas of responsible AI, posing moral and ethical consequences. This is particularly concerning in a health context where lives are at stake and where there are significant sensitivities that are not as pertinent in other domains outside of health. This calls for a comprehensive analysis of health AI using responsible AI concepts as a structural lens. A systematic literature review supported our data collection and sampling procedure, the corresponding analysis, and extraction of research themes helped us provide an evidence-based foundation. We contribute with a systematic description and explanation of the intellectual structure of Responsible AI in digital health and develop an agenda for future research.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 ◽  
pp. 1-XX
Roi Silva-Casal ◽  
Josep Serra-Kiel ◽  
Adriana Rodriguez-Pintó ◽  
Emilio L Pueyo ◽  
Marcos Aurell ◽  

An extense systematic description of the Eocene larger foraminiferal faunas recorded in the South Pyrenean Basin (Sierras Exteriores) is presented herein. The large dataset provided in this work includes both Nummulites and Alveolina species, along with a variety of other porcellaneous and hyaline taxa with lesser biostratigraphic relevance, are represented. The larger foraminifera described in this work correspond mainly to the Lutetian (SBZ13 to SBZ16 biozones) interval, but late Ypresian (SBZ11, Cuisian) and Bartonian (SBZ17) shallow benthic zones have also been identified.As one of the most relevant results of this systematic analysis, a new species, Idalina osquetaensis, is described. The systematic revision of middle to late Lutetian alveolines led to a reassessment of A. fusiformis and the finding of two new precursor forms, described as affinis of their corresponding species, A. aff. fragilis and A. aff. elongata. The new forms A. aff. elongata and A. aff. fragilis fill the gap in the middle to late Lutetian alveolinid biostratigraphy. Despite not being exclusive to SBZ16, these new forms provide realiable biostratigraphic information where Nummulites are not present. This realibility lies on the correlation of Nummulites and Alveolina biomarkers in the same sections and their calibration to the global time scale through magnetostratigraphy. In fact, magnetostratigraphic calibration of all described taxa is also provided, along with an update of the SBZ calibration to the current Geologic Time Scale (Gradstein et al., 2012).

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
Carolina-Joanna Gomes ◽  
Tatyana Kruglova

This article examines the peculiarities of protests against the offensive content of artworks in the context of one of the most significant discoveries of modern society, the public sphere and its historical transformations. Art is one of the most sensitive indicators of the state of values and symbols, which makes it vulnerable, forming a space for various protests. A distinction is made between conflicts around art that have an etiology within the enlightenment paradigm and modern types of conflicts, in which the accusation that art offends the public and social groups dominates. The initiative for protests in modern culture comes from a public that perceives art in contrast to the previous dominant powers. The discourse of offence lies at the centre of art-related conflict, since the content of protest is heavily loaded with symbolic connotations (ethical, religious, political, ethnic, etc.). The authors analyse offense and its genesis in the modern. It is argued that the source of ressentiment is not within art, but outside it, in the public sphere, while the work is perceived as a medium or symbol of this source. In order to provide a systematic description of protests against art, the authors propose the concept of ressentiment as a mental and value attitude (M. Scheler), in which emphasis is placed on the significance of the long-term attitude that results from the repression of affects. Due to the inhibition of the response impulse, the reaction is transferred to another object. This explains the displacement of the negative reaction from the real cause of suffering to objects of a symbolic nature, in this case to the world of art. Based on the phases of development of ressentiment and its structural elements (themes, social environment, actors) identified by Ch. Pak and using discourse analysis of materials from the public sphere (media, social networks), a case study was examined: an exhibition by the photographer Jock Sturges, Absence of Shame (Moscow) in 2016–2017. It is proved that the motivator of the protest was not the exhibition itself, but the content of the blogger’s posts, the discourse around it, and other ways of representing the biography and oeuvre of the photographer in the public sphere. It is shown that ressentiment as an attitude is formed from the outside and seeks material for its establishment in the outside world. For the formation of a conflict, a preliminary formulation of the discourse of offence is necessary: further dissemination by public groups can consolidate affects and turn them into actions. Provocative art, which violates the boundaries of aesthetic conventions of the art field, risks becoming an object of substituted protest when entering the public sphere.

2021 ◽  
pp. 104-110
Antonina Plechko

The article analyzes the attributive characteristics of celestial bodies: the sun, the moon and the stars in the Middle Polisian beliefs on the basis of dialect texts, which are valuable authentic material for the reconstruction of traditional spiritual culture. The research material was the texts of field research on inanimate objects collected in the territory of the Middle Polissia of Ukraine in 55 settlements of Zhytomyr and Rivne regions during 2010–2019 years. The purpose of our research is to describe tokens that are means of reflecting the attributive characteristics of the nomination of celestial bodies in the Middle Polisian dialects as one of the components of the linguistic picture of the world of a separate dialect space. The subject of analysis is the lexical and syntactic expression of the attributes of the sun, the moon and the stars in the beliefs of Polishchuks (local population of Polisian region. In the research the method of expeditionary collection of material, audio recordings with subsequent decoding and transcription of field material, the method of systematic description of the studied phenomenon for systematizing the collected material were used. The classification of attributes is given and the analysis of meteorological, color, sacred, temporal meanings, on external signs (on the size, on the form) is carried out. The results of the study indicate that the most filled and diverse groups of attributes that make up the Middle Polisian linguistic portrait of the characteristics of celestial bodies are meteorological and color definitions. Meteorological, temporal, external attributes enter into antonymous relations, as they contain in their semantic structure the corresponding positive / negative evaluative element (weather / bad weather). The color attributes, associated with the sun and the moon, are represented only by light and bright colors, there are no dark colors. While describing celestial bodies, we note a group of sacred meanings and adjectives with a gentle color, the suffix of diminution, which indicate a special perception of celestial bodies by Polishchuks. The collected material only partially reflects the characteristics of celestial bodies in the Middle Polisian dialects as one of the components of the linguistic picture of the world, so other means of reflecting the nomination of the sun, moon and stars require detailed study.

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