Anatomical Position
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2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (12) ◽  
pp. 3717
Reshma Bhalchandra Mohite ◽  
Vishaka Iyer ◽  
Anant N. Beedkar ◽  
Sarojini Jadhav

Amyand’s hernia is defined as the hernia with appendix normal, inflamed or perforated as content. 1% of inguinal hernias are Amyand’s and amongst them 0.1% contains inflamed appendix. Commonly encountered on right size due to anatomical position of appendix. Left Amyand’s is rare and associated with intestinal malrotation, situs invertus and mobile caecum. Here, we presented an interesting case of left irreducible hernia in 70 years old gentleman with no signs of acute obstruction or strangulation, patient underwent emergency laparotomy in which hernial sac contents were inflamed ileal loop, inflamed appendix and perforated caecum in 70 years old man is rare presentation and not reported in any literature as per our knowledge. Resection of inflamed bowel loop with ceacum done along with ileo ascending anastomosis with primary tissue repair done. Post-operative period was uneventful. Hernia sac contents are most of the time surprising and their management sometimes differ according to the content. Appendix in hernia sac is found in 1% of all hernia but lack of facility for the pre-operative diagnosis and varied presentation it is challenging to diagnose and operate accordingly.  

2021 ◽  
Sowmiya Kalyanasundaram ◽  
Suresh Fernando

Objective: An 87-year-old attended the emergency department with sharp upper abdominal pain, radiating to back with a pain score of 10/10. On examination, severe epigastric tenderness was noted. Past surgical history: bilateral salphingo-oopherectomy. Repair for paraumblical hernia and right total hip replacement. No history of cholecystectomy. Inflammatory markers were raised. Cholecystitis/gall bladder perforation was suspected and contrast CT was performed. Methods: CT abdomen and pelvis – in comparison to the previous CT scan which was done in 2018, where gall bladder was in the correct anatomical location, the gall bladder was not seen in the gall bladder fossa in the current study. However, a gall bladder like suspicious structure was noticed within the upper abdomen to the left of midline anterior to the gastric pylorus with significant inflammatory changes. Therefore, considering the clinical picture and CT findings, it was suggestive of acute cholecystitis with torsion of gall bladder. Results: Patient was started on i.v. antibiotics and laparoscopic assessment was carried out on the following day. Intraoperatively, the surgeons were unable to locate the gall bladder in its normal anatomical position, but incidentally found a mass in the left upper abdomen which appeared gangrenous. This was removed and sent for histopathology. Histology report confirmed that the specimen was gall bladder with features suggestive of pre-existing chronic cholecystitis, with recent venous infarction. Conclusion: Torsion of gall bladder is a very rare entity and if left untreated could lead to fatal sequelae of gangrene and perforation resulting in biliary peritonitis. There is evidence which suggest that torsion of gall bladder is more common in elderly females due to loss of visceral fat but the pre-operative diagnosis using imaging modalities has always been challenging. But in this particular case, the radiologist was able to make the precise diagnosis pre-operatively using the cross-sectional study of an advanced imaging modality like the CT scan with contrast which also helped the surgeons in making the decision for immediate surgery rather than planning for routine conservative management for acute cholecystitis. The importance of cross-sectional study with intravenous contrast in diagnosing unusual presentation of gall bladder related and potentially life-threatening abdominal pathology has been highlighted in this case study. It is also evident that how imaging modalities play a significant role in altering acute management plan.

2021 ◽  
Zhongshan Gou ◽  
Xinxin Yan ◽  
Baojuan Sun ◽  
Jie Zhang ◽  
Hongmei Liu ◽  

Aim: To investigate the types, associated anomalies and postnatal outcomes of fetal hepatic venous system (HVS) variants by ultrasound in China.Material and methods: A large-scale and prospective investigation of HVS variants for low-risk singleton pregnant women was performed in three academic tertiary referral care centers in China. Ultrasound imaging wasused for the identification and follow-up of anatomical variants. Follow-up was conducted once every four weeks prenatally and every two months postnatally, mainly concerned on the adverse events that may appear.Results: There were 20848 cases with anatomical variants of fetal HVS identified from 46179 candidates during the study period. Following the anatomical position of variants occurring, four main divisions were present: main portal vein variants (17.9%), intrahepatic portal vein variants (21.30%), intrahepatic persistent right umbilical vein (0.27%) and hepatic vein variants (5.67%). In the fetal period, the pregnancy of all cases was normally continued, except that the pregnancy of two cases, which were associated with multiple anomalies and were terminated by their parents. After birth, approximately 99.47% of the cases with isolated variants orbeing associated no clinic significant anomalies were normally alive. Approximately 0.50% cases were associated with simple ventricular septum defect or tetralogy of Fallot and further treatment was needed.Conclusion: The anatomical variants of fetal HVS may appear as numerical, morphological or positional variants of MPV, intrahepatic PV branches, intrahepatic PRUV and HVs. The majority of cases are isolated or their associated anomalies are not clinically significant and have normal lifeafter birth.

2021 ◽  
Yoav Printz ◽  
Pritish Patil ◽  
Mathias Mahn ◽  
Asaf Benjamin ◽  
Anna Litvin ◽  

The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) mediates a variety of complex cognitive functions via its vast and diverse connections with cortical and subcortical structures. Understanding the patterns of synaptic connectivity that comprise the mPFC local network is crucial for deciphering how this circuit processes information and relays it to downstream structures. To elucidate the synaptic organization of the mPFC, we developed a high-throughput optogenetic method for mapping large-scale functional synaptic connectivity. We show that mPFC neurons that project to the basolateral amygdala display unique spatial patterns of local-circuit synaptic connectivity within the mPFC, which distinguish them from the general mPFC cell population. Moreover, the intrinsic properties of the postsynaptic mPFC cell and anatomical position of both cells jointly account for ~7.5% of the variation in probability of connection between mPFC neurons, with anatomical distance and laminar position explaining most of this fraction in variation. Our findings demonstrate a functional segregation of mPFC excitatory neuron subnetworks, and reveal the factors determining connectivity in the mPFC.

2021 ◽  
Vol 108 (Supplement_8) ◽  
Ludvig Stjärne ◽  
Maria Melkemichel ◽  
Sven Bringman ◽  
Björn Widhe

Abstract Aim Previous studies on the repair of small umbilical hernias have suggested a lower recurrence rate with mesh compared to suture repair. A remaining important question is in what anatomical position the mesh should be placed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the outcome of using a standardized 4x4 cm onlay-mesh for umbilical hernias ≤2cm. Material and Methods A retrospective study was conducted at a single institution in Sweden on all umbilical hernia repairs during 2015-2019. The follow up time was at least four months. Patients were identified using the hospital medical record database. Repairs performed with suture, sublay, ventral patch or laparoscopic mesh positioning were excluded. Patient’s demographics, comorbidities, intra – and postoperative details were considered. Primary outcome was surgical site complications within 30 days. Secondary outcome was recurrence. Results 80 patients were repaired with a small onlay-mesh for an umbilical hernia ≤ 2 cm and were included for statistical analysis. Median (range) follow-up time was 29.0 (4.3-50.1) months. Median age was 46 (26-76) years old. Median body mass index was 28 (19-38) kg/m2. Men to female ratio was 2.1. 4 patients were identified with a surgical site postoperative complication; 3 with seroma and 1 with superficial wound infection. 3 of these were given antibiotics. 2 patients were treated with wound opening bedside. There were no registered cases of a recurrence. Conclusions Repairing small umbilical hernias with a small onlay-mesh was safe with a low surgical site complication rate. Randomized trials are needed to assess weather mesh reduce recurrences in umbilical hernia repairs ≤2cm.

Jawed A. Bhat ◽  
Tabasum Akbar ◽  
Abdul Hanan Javaid ◽  
Faizan Javaid ◽  
Faesal Mir ◽  

<p><strong>Background:</strong> Aim of the study was to assess the functional outcome of operative management of displaced acetabular fractures and complications.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study included sixty patients presenting within 2 weeks with displaced fractures of more than 2 mm. Elderly patients with osteoporotic bones and co-morbid conditions were excluded.</p><p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of sixty patients were operated on. Union was achieved in anatomical position in 51 patients (85%) and in malposition in 9 (15%) patients. Excellent results were obtained in 15 (25%) patients, good results in 32 (53%), fair results in 7 (11.6%) and poor results in 6 (10%) patients. Post operative complications included infection in 2 (3%), sciatic nerve injury in 2 (3%) and avascular necrosis (AVN) in 3 (5%) patients.</p><p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> In the present study, majority of the patients were operated within two weeks. The Harris hip score averaged 58.</p>

Norman Pastorek ◽  
Patrick Cleveland

AbstractGaining, improving, and maintaining nasal tip projection is one of the most essential elements of successful endonasal rhinoplasty. For years the hallmark of inadequate nasal tip projection following rhinoplasty has been the Polly beak deformity. Early rhinoplasty technique consisted of intracartilaginous excision of the cephalic margin of the lower lateral cartilages, cartilage and bony hump reduction, and osteotomies. Some of these simple rhinoplasties still look good decades later, however, many are conspicuous in their lack of nasal tip projection. The reason for this inconsistency in rhinoplasty results was the surgeon's inattention to the structural integrity and anatomical position of the LLC. The senior author uses a combination of suture, strut, and cartilage grafting techniques to achieve ideal projection in a manor tailored to each patient's unique anatomic needs.

2021 ◽  
Ping Song ◽  
Xiangpeng Kong ◽  
Minzhi Yang ◽  
Wei Chai

Abstract Background This study aims to investigate the course and anatomical characteristics of sciatic and femoral nerves in unilateral Crowe type IV developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective own-control study of patients with unilateral Crowe type IV DDH. Bilateral hips’ CTs of 21 female patients were reviewed in our institute from February 2018 to February 2020. The distances between nerves and bony landmarks were measured in different CT sections (anterior superior iliac spine, acetabular inner wall, teardrop, and ischial tuberosity) to analyze the anatomical position and course of sciatic and femoral nerves between bilateral hips. Results In the section of acetabular inner wall, the distance between femoral nerve and acetabular anterior wall in affected hip (13.20±3.59 mm) was significantly smaller than that in healthy hip (16.58±5.12mm) (p=0.000). In other sections, the distances between nerves and bony landmarks in affected hips were significantly larger than or equal to those in healthy hips. Conclusion In female patients with unilateral Crowe type IV DDH, the femoral nerve in affected hip runs closer to anterior acetabular wall than that in healthy hip.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Bow Wang ◽  
Chien-Yi Ting ◽  
Cheng-Shih Lai ◽  
Yi-Shan Tsai

Background. Radiation using conventional X-ray is associated with exposure of radiosensitive organs and typically requires the use of protection. This study is aimed at evaluating the use of bismuth shielding for radiation protection in pediatric pelvic radiography. The effects of the anteroposterior and lateral bismuth shielding were verified by direct measurements at the anatomical position of the gonads. Methods. Radiation doses were measured using optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLD) and CIRS ATOM Dosimetry Verification Phantoms. Gonad radiographs were acquired using different shields of varying material (lead, bismuth) and thickness and were compared with radiographs obtained without shielding to examine the effects on image quality and optimal reduction of radiation dose. All images were evaluated separately by three pediatric orthopedic practitioners. Results. Results showed that conventional lead gonadal shielding reduces radiation doses by 67.45%, whereas dose reduction using one layer of bismuth shielding is 76.38%. The use of two layers of bismuth shielding reduces the dose by 84.01%. Using three and four layers of bismuth shielding reduces dose by 97.33% and 99.34%, respectively. Progressively lower radiation doses can be achieved by increasing the number of bismuth layers. Images obtained using both one and two layers of bismuth shielding provided adequate diagnostic information, but those obtained using three or four layers of bismuth shielding were inadequate for diagnosis. Conclusions. Bismuth shielding reduces radiation dose exposure providing appropriate protection for children undergoing pelvic radiography. The bismuth shielding material is lighter than lead, making pediatric patients more comfortable and less apt to move, thereby avoiding repeat radiography.

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