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Author(s):  
Yutong Liang ◽  
Robert J. Weber ◽  
Pawel K. Misztal ◽  
Coty N. Jen ◽  
Allen H. Goldstein

2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yiran E Liu ◽  
Christopher LeBoa ◽  
Marcela Rodriguez ◽  
Beruk Sherif ◽  
Chrisele Trinidad ◽  
...  

Context: Although the increased risk of COVID-19 in carceral facilities is well documented, little is known about the practical barriers to infection control and indirect impacts of pandemic policies in these settings. Evidence in jails is especially scarce. Methods: Between July 8, 2020 and April 30, 2021 we performed SARS-CoV-2 serology testing and administered a questionnaire among residents and staff in four Northern California jails. We analyzed seroprevalence in conjunction with demographic factors and survey responses of self-perceived COVID-19 risk, recent illness, COVID-19 test results, and symptom reporting behaviors. We additionally assessed COVID-19 policies in practice and evaluated their impacts on court dates, mental health, and routine health care. We engaged stakeholder representatives, including incarcerated individuals and their advocates, to guide study design, conduct, and interpretation. Findings: We enrolled 788 incarcerated individuals and 380 staff across four county jails. Most seropositive individuals had not previously tested positive for COVID-19, despite many suspecting prior infection. Among incarcerated participants, we identified deficient access to face masks and prevalent symptom underreporting associated with fears of isolation and perceptions of medical neglect in jail. Incarcerated participants also reported substantial hindrances to court cases and reductions in routine health care due to COVID-19. Incarcerated individuals and staff both cited worsened mental health due to COVID-19, which for incarcerated individuals was largely attributable to further isolation from loved ones and other pandemic restrictions on recreation and programming. Conclusions: Perceptions of inadequate protection from COVID-19 were pervasive among incarcerated individuals. Simultaneously, restrictive measures compounded poor mental health and fostered fears of isolation that undermined effective infection control. Custody officials should work to systematically improve provision of masks, understand and mitigate fears and mistrust, and take proactive steps to minimize the detrimental impacts of restrictive policies on residents' mental health and well-being.


2022 ◽  
Vol 58 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Sadie N. Trombley ◽  
Laureen M. Barthman-Thompson ◽  
Melissa K. Riley ◽  
Sarah A. Estrella ◽  
Katherine R. Smith ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Patricia Rodriguez Espinosa ◽  
Darcie Green ◽  
Yessica Martinez Mulet ◽  
Miriam L. Trigo ◽  
Natalia M. Zamora Zeledon ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 226 (1) ◽  
pp. S280
Author(s):  
Arturo D. Salow ◽  
Zahra Samiezade-Yazd ◽  
William E. Maes ◽  
Jessenia Villa ◽  
Hayley D. Winninghoff ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 87 ◽  
pp. 481-492 ◽  
Author(s):  
Brian N. Hogg ◽  
Evelyne Hougardy ◽  
Elijah Talamas

Bagrada bug, Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae), has become a major pest of cole crops (cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale) in California since its arrival in 2008. In this study we documented parasitism of B. hilaris eggs at a highly infested site in northern California by deploying sentinel B. hilaris eggs and collecting naturally-laid B. hilaris eggs in the soil. Two parasitoids, Gryon aetherium Talamas (Hymenoptera, Scelionidae) and Ooencyrtus californicus Girault (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae), emerged from sentinel eggs, but only G. aetherium was documented attacking eggs in the soil. Gryon aetherium is currently being assessed as a classical biological control agent for B. hilaris in California, and mating experiments showed that crosses between G. aetherium from Pakistan and California yielded viable female offspring. This report marks the first known record of G. aetherium in the USA, and further work should be conducted to assess the potential of this parasitoid for biological control of B. hilaris.


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