event based
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2022 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jianting Lyu ◽  
Lianghui Sun ◽  
Xin Wang ◽  
Dai Gao

This article focuses on the consensus problem of linear multi-agent systems under denial-of-service attacks and directed switching topologies. With only intermittent communication, the leader-following consensus can be preserved by fully distributed event-triggered strategies. Theoretical analysis shows that the proposed event-triggered resilient controller guarantees the exponential convergence in the presence of denial-of-service attacks and the exclusion of Zeno behavior. Compared to the existing studies where continuous communication between neighboring agents is required, the event-triggered data reduction scheme is provided to tackle the effects of denial-of-service attacks on directed switching topology as well as to avoid continuous communication and reduce energy consumption. The obtained results can be extended to the scenario without a leader. Numerical simulations are finally given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.


2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (POPL) ◽  
pp. 1-30
Author(s):  
Alan Jeffrey ◽  
James Riely ◽  
Mark Batty ◽  
Simon Cooksey ◽  
Ilya Kaysin ◽  
...  

Program logics and semantics tell a pleasant story about sequential composition: when executing (S1;S2), we first execute S1 then S2. To improve performance, however, processors execute instructions out of order, and compilers reorder programs even more dramatically. By design, single-threaded systems cannot observe these reorderings; however, multiple-threaded systems can, making the story considerably less pleasant. A formal attempt to understand the resulting mess is known as a “relaxed memory model.” Prior models either fail to address sequential composition directly, or overly restrict processors and compilers, or permit nonsense thin-air behaviors which are unobservable in practice. To support sequential composition while targeting modern hardware, we enrich the standard event-based approach with preconditions and families of predicate transformers. When calculating the meaning of (S1; S2), the predicate transformer applied to the precondition of an event e from S2 is chosen based on the set of events in S1 upon which e depends. We apply this approach to two existing memory models.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Antoine Grimaldi ◽  
Victor Boutin ◽  
Sio-Hoi Ieng ◽  
Ryad Benosman ◽  
Laurent Perrinet

<div> <div> <div> <p>We propose a neuromimetic architecture able to perform always-on pattern recognition. To achieve this, we extended an existing event-based algorithm [1], which introduced novel spatio-temporal features as a Hierarchy Of Time-Surfaces (HOTS). Built from asynchronous events acquired by a neuromorphic camera, these time surfaces allow to code the local dynamics of a visual scene and to create an efficient event-based pattern recognition architecture. Inspired by neuroscience, we extended this method to increase its performance. Our first contribution was to add a homeostatic gain control on the activity of neurons to improve the learning of spatio-temporal patterns [2]. A second contribution is to draw an analogy between the HOTS algorithm and Spiking Neural Networks (SNN). Following that analogy, our last contribution is to modify the classification layer and remodel the offline pattern categorization method previously used into an online and event-driven one. This classifier uses the spiking output of the network to define novel time surfaces and we then perform online classification with a neuromimetic implementation of a multinomial logistic regression. Not only do these improvements increase consistently the performances of the network, they also make this event-driven pattern recognition algorithm online and bio-realistic. Results were validated on different datasets: DVS barrel [3], Poker-DVS [4] and N-MNIST [5]. We foresee to develop the SNN version of the method and to extend this fully event-driven approach to more naturalistic tasks, notably for always-on, ultra-fast object categorization. </p> </div> </div> </div>


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Antoine Grimaldi ◽  
Victor Boutin ◽  
Sio-Hoi Ieng ◽  
Ryad Benosman ◽  
Laurent Perrinet

<div> <div> <div> <p>We propose a neuromimetic architecture able to perform always-on pattern recognition. To achieve this, we extended an existing event-based algorithm [1], which introduced novel spatio-temporal features as a Hierarchy Of Time-Surfaces (HOTS). Built from asynchronous events acquired by a neuromorphic camera, these time surfaces allow to code the local dynamics of a visual scene and to create an efficient event-based pattern recognition architecture. Inspired by neuroscience, we extended this method to increase its performance. Our first contribution was to add a homeostatic gain control on the activity of neurons to improve the learning of spatio-temporal patterns [2]. A second contribution is to draw an analogy between the HOTS algorithm and Spiking Neural Networks (SNN). Following that analogy, our last contribution is to modify the classification layer and remodel the offline pattern categorization method previously used into an online and event-driven one. This classifier uses the spiking output of the network to define novel time surfaces and we then perform online classification with a neuromimetic implementation of a multinomial logistic regression. Not only do these improvements increase consistently the performances of the network, they also make this event-driven pattern recognition algorithm online and bio-realistic. Results were validated on different datasets: DVS barrel [3], Poker-DVS [4] and N-MNIST [5]. We foresee to develop the SNN version of the method and to extend this fully event-driven approach to more naturalistic tasks, notably for always-on, ultra-fast object categorization. </p> </div> </div> </div>


Author(s):  
Xiaoqian Huang ◽  
Mohamad Halwani ◽  
Rajkumar Muthusamy ◽  
Abdulla Ayyad ◽  
Dewald Swart ◽  
...  

AbstractRobotic vision plays a key role for perceiving the environment in grasping applications. However, the conventional framed-based robotic vision, suffering from motion blur and low sampling rate, may not meet the automation needs of evolving industrial requirements. This paper, for the first time, proposes an event-based robotic grasping framework for multiple known and unknown objects in a cluttered scene. With advantages of microsecond-level sampling rate and no motion blur of event camera, the model-based and model-free approaches are developed for known and unknown objects’ grasping respectively. The event-based multi-view approach is used to localize the objects in the scene in the model-based approach, and then point cloud processing is utilized to cluster and register the objects. The proposed model-free approach, on the other hand, utilizes the developed event-based object segmentation, visual servoing and grasp planning to localize, align to, and grasp the targeting object. Using a UR10 robot with an eye-in-hand neuromorphic camera and a Barrett hand gripper, the proposed approaches are experimentally validated with objects of different sizes. Furthermore, it demonstrates robustness and a significant advantage over grasping with a traditional frame-based camera in low-light conditions.


Author(s):  
Andrew Gothard ◽  
Daniel Jones ◽  
Andre Green ◽  
Michael Torrez ◽  
Alessandro Cattaneo ◽  
...  

Abstract Event-driven neuromorphic imagers have a number of attractive properties including low-power consumption, high dynamic range, the ability to detect fast events, low memory consumption and low band-width requirements. One of the biggest challenges with using event-driven imagery is that the field of event data processing is still embryonic. In contrast, decades worth of effort have been invested in the analysis of frame-based imagery. Hybrid approaches for applying established frame-based analysis techniques to event-driven imagery have been studied since event-driven imagers came into existence. However, the process for forming frames from event-driven imagery has not been studied in detail. This work presents a principled digital coded exposure approach for forming frames from event-driven imagery that is inspired by the physics exploited in a conventional camera featuring a shutter. The technique described in this work provides a fundamental tool for understanding the temporal information content that contributes to the formation of a frame from event-driven imagery data. Event-driven imagery allows for the application of arbitrary virtual digital shutter functions to form the final frame on a pixel-by-pixel basis. The proposed approach allows for the careful control of the spatio-temporal information that is captured in the frame. Furthermore, unlike a conventional physical camera, event-driven imagery can be formed into any variety of possible frames in post-processing after the data is captured. Furthermore, unlike a conventional physical camera, coded-exposure virtual shutter functions can assume arbitrary values including positive, negative, real, and complex values. The coded exposure approach also enables the ability to perform applications of industrial interest such as digital stroboscopy without any additional hardware. The ability to form frames from event-driven imagery in a principled manner opens up new possibilities in the ability to use conventional frame-based image processing techniques on event-driven imagery.


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