Amino Acid Absorption
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2021 ◽  
Philippe J. M. Pinckaers ◽  
Jorn Trommelen ◽  
Tim Snijders ◽  
Luc J. C. van Loon

AbstractThere is a global trend of an increased interest in plant-based diets. This includes an increase in the consumption of plant-based proteins at the expense of animal-based proteins. Plant-derived proteins are now also frequently applied in sports nutrition. So far, we have learned that the ingestion of plant-derived proteins, such as soy and wheat protein, result in lower post-prandial muscle protein synthesis responses when compared with the ingestion of an equivalent amount of animal-based protein. The lesser anabolic properties of plant-based versus animal-derived proteins may be attributed to differences in their protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics, as well as to differences in amino acid composition between these protein sources. Most plant-based proteins have a low essential amino acid content and are often deficient in one or more specific amino acids, such as lysine and methionine. However, there are large differences in amino acid composition between various plant-derived proteins or plant-based protein sources. So far, only a few studies have directly compared the muscle protein synthetic response following the ingestion of a plant-derived protein versus a high(er) quality animal-derived protein. The proposed lower anabolic properties of plant- versus animal-derived proteins may be compensated for by (i) consuming a greater amount of the plant-derived protein or plant-based protein source to compensate for the lesser quality; (ii) using specific blends of plant-based proteins to create a more balanced amino acid profile; (iii) fortifying the plant-based protein (source) with the specific free amino acid(s) that is (are) deficient. Clinical studies are warranted to assess the anabolic properties of the various plant-derived proteins and their protein sources in vivo in humans and to identify the factors that may or may not compromise the capacity to stimulate post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates. Such work is needed to determine whether the transition towards a more plant-based diet is accompanied by a transition towards greater dietary protein intake requirements.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Stella Romanet ◽  
Jörg R. Aschenbach ◽  
Robert Pieper ◽  
Jürgen Zentek ◽  
John K. Htoo ◽  

Abstract Background Given the key role of methionine (Met) in biological processes like protein translation, methylation, and antioxidant defense, inadequate Met supply can limit performance. This study investigated the effect of different dietary Met sources on the expression profile of various Met transporters along the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of pigs. Methods A total of 27 pigs received a diet supplemented with 0.21% DL-Met, 0.21% L-Met, or 0.31% DL-2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid (DL-HMTBA). Changes in mRNA expression of B0AT1, ATB0,+, rBAT, ASCT2, IMINO, LAT4, y+LAT1, LAT2, and SNAT2 were evaluated in the oral mucosa, cardia, fundus, pylorus, duodenum, proximal jejunum, middle jejunum, ileum, cecum, proximal colon, and distal colon, complemented by protein expression analysis of B0AT1, ASCT2, LAT2, and LAT4. Results Expression of all investigated transcripts differed significantly along the GIT. B0AT1, rBAT, y+LAT1, LAT2, and LAT4 showed strongest mRNA expression in small intestinal segments. ASCT2, IMINO, and SNAT2 were similarly expressed along the small and large intestines but expression differed in the oral mucosa and stomach. ATB0,+ showed highest mRNA expression in large intestinal tissues, cardia, and pylorus. In pigs fed DL-Met, mRNA expression of ASCT2 was higher than in pigs fed DL-HMTBA in small intestinal tissues and mRNA expression of IMINO was lower than in pigs fed L-Met in large intestinal tissues. Dietary DL-HMTBA induced a stronger mRNA expression of basolateral uptake systems either in the small (LAT2) or large (y+LAT1) intestine. Protein expression of B0AT1 was higher in the middle jejunum and ileum in pigs fed DL-Met when compared with the other Met supplements. LAT4 expression was higher in pigs fed DL-HMTBA when compared with DL-Met (small intestine) and L-Met (small intestine, oral mucosa, and stomach). Conclusion A high expression of several Met transporters in small intestinal segments underlines the primary role of these segments in amino acid absorption; however, some Met transporters show high transcript and protein levels also in large intestine, oral mucosa, and stomach. A diet containing DL-Met has potential to increase apical Met transport in the small intestine, whereas a diet containing DL-HMTBA has potential to increase basolateral Met transport in the small intestine and, partly, other gastrointestinal tissues.

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 1668
Zhanyu Chen ◽  
Yingying Zhang ◽  
Jiating Zhang ◽  
Bei Fan ◽  
Ying Zhou ◽  

The amino acid permease (AAP) is an important transmembrane protein that is involved in the absorption and transport of amino acids in plants. We investigated the expression patterns of AtAAP genes in Arabidopsis thaliana, based on quantitative real-time PCR. The results revealed differential expression patterns of eight AtAAP genes in different tissues, with five genes (AtAAP1, AtAAP2, AtAAP6, AtAAP7, and AtAAP8) expressed at relatively high levels in both flowers and siliques, suggesting their shared functions in the accumulation of amino acids. In transgenic plants, with endosperm-specific overexpression of AtAAP1, both AtAAP1 and AtAAP6 were up-regulated in both the roots and siliques, while AtAAP2, AtAAP3, AtAAP4, and AtAAP5 showed similar expression levels in the stems and siliques, whereas AtAAP7 and AtAAP8 were expressed at their highest levels in the stems and roots. The results of the amino acid affinity experiments revealed varied absorption capacities for different amino acids, by AtAAP1, and increased acid amino contents in the reproductive organs. These results were verified in transgenic maize plants, with the overexpression of AtAAP1, revealing higher amino acid contents in the reproductive organs than those of the vegetative organs. Our study clearly demonstrated that the endosperm-specific promoter increased the amino acid contents in the reproductive organs and improved the effective utilization of organic nitrogen in plants.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (16) ◽  
pp. 8570
Il-Sup Kim ◽  
Woong-Suk Yang ◽  
Cheorl-Ho Kim

Peptides present in foods are involved in nutritional functions by supplying amino acids; sensory functions related to taste or solubility, emulsification, etc.; and bioregulatory functions in various physiological activities. In particular, peptides have a wide range of physiological functions, including as anticancer agents and in lowering blood pressure and serum cholesterol levels, enhancing immunity, and promoting calcium absorption. Soy protein can be partially hydrolyzed enzymatically to physiologically active soy (or soybean) peptides (SPs), which not only exert physiological functions but also help amino acid absorption in the body and reduce bitterness by hydrolyzing hydrophobic amino acids from the C- or N-terminus of soy proteins. They also possess significant gel-forming, emulsifying, and foaming abilities. SPs are expected to be able to prevent and treat atherosclerosis by inhibiting the reabsorption of bile acids in the digestive system, thereby reducing blood cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and fat levels. In addition, soy contains blood pressure-lowering peptides that inhibit angiotensin-I converting enzyme activity and antithrombotic peptides that inhibit platelet aggregation, as well as anticancer, antioxidative, antimicrobial, immunoregulatory, opiate-like, hypocholesterolemic, and antihypertensive activities. In animal models, neuroprotective and cognitive capacity as well as cardiovascular activity have been reported. SPs also inhibit chronic kidney disease and tumor cell growth by regulating the expression of genes associated with apoptosis, inflammation, cell cycle arrest, invasion, and metastasis. Recently, various functions of soybeans, including their physiologically active functions, have been applied to health-oriented foods, functional foods, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. This review introduces some current results on the role of bioactive peptides found in soybeans related to health functions.

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (7) ◽  
pp. 1972
Huafeng Jian ◽  
Sasa Miao ◽  
Yating Liu ◽  
Huaiyu Li ◽  
Wenting Zhou ◽  

The present study aimed to assess the impact of dietary valine levels on layer production performance, egg quality, immunity, and intestinal amino acid absorption of laying hens during the peak lay period. For this purpose, a total of 960 33-week-old Fengda No.1 laying hens were randomly divided into five experimental groups and fed with valine at the following different levels in a feeding trial that lasted 8 weeks: 0.59, 0.64, 0.69, 0.74, and 0.79%, respectively. Productive performances were recorded throughout the whole rearing cycle and the egg quality, serum indexes, and small intestine transporters expression were assessed at the end of the experiment after slaughter (41 weeks) on 12 hens per group. Statistical analysis was conducted by one-way ANOVA followed by LSD multiple comparison tests with SPSS 20.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). The linear and quadratic effects were tested by SPSS 20.0. Egg mass, laying rate, broken egg rate, and feed conversion ratio were significantly improved with increasing dietary valine levels. However, the egg weight, eggshell thickness, albumen height, Haugh unit, and egg yolk color were significantly decreased with increasing dietary valine levels. Serum catalase (CAT), immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgM levels, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were negative responses to valine-treated laying hens. Dietary supplemented valine enhanced the trypsin activity of duodenum chime and promoted the mRNA expression levels of ATB0,+, and LAT4 in the jejunum and corresponding serum free Ile, Lys, Phe, Val, and Tyr level. However, valine treatment significantly downregulated the mRNA expression levels of PePT1, B0AT1, LAT1, and SNAT2 in the small intestines and corresponding serum free Arg, His, Met, Thr, Ala, Asp, Glu, Gly, and Ser level. Our results suggest that 0.79% valine dietary supplementation can improve production performance by promoting amino acid nutrient uptake and utilization, and suggest a supplement of 0.79% valine to diet.

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (6) ◽  
pp. 1740
Jan V. Nørgaard ◽  
Iulia C. Florescu ◽  
Uffe Krogh ◽  
Tina Skau Nielsen

The aim of the present study was to determine postprandial amino acid (AA) appearance in the blood of growing pigs as influenced by protein source. Seven growing pigs (average body weight 18 kg), in a 7 × 5 Youden square design, were fitted with a jugular vein catheter and fed seven diets containing wheat, soybean meal, enzyme-treated soybean meal, hydrothermally-treated rapeseed meal, casein, hydrolyzed casein, and a crystalline AA blend with the same AA profile as casein. The latter was not eaten by the pigs, therefore being excluded. Blood samples were collected at −30, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 360 min after a meal and analyzed for free AA. Overall, plasma AA concentrations were highest 60 min after feeding. There were no differences in plasma AA concentration between casein and hydrolyzed casein, but soybean meal resulted in lower AA plasma concentrations compared with enzyme-treated soybean meal at 60 and 120 min after feeding. There were no differences between hydrothermally-treated rapeseed meal and soybean meal. In conclusion, the ingredients could not clearly be categorized as being slow or fast protein with regard to protein digestion and absorption of AA, but soybean meal resulted in a prolonged appearance of plasma AA compared to casein and hydrolyzed casein.

2021 ◽  
Vol 46 (2) ◽  
pp. 154-165
R. Susanti ◽  
M. Dafip ◽  
W. Christijanti ◽  
A. Yuniastuti

This study was aimed to compare sugars and amino acid content in duck’s feed and the intestinal bacteria's effects to improve ducks' quality. This research was an observational exploration involving five duck husbandries from Semarang, Temanggung, Magelang, Pati, and Salatiga District, Central Java. A total of 5 g of intestinal contents were collected from each of the five ducks randomly selected from each husbandry. The feed and intestinal contents were then analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The highest amino acid types were glutamate, aspartate, lysine, valine, and isoleucine, while the lowest was asparagine found in all sample farms. Intestinal contents freshly extracted then placed in dark bottles sterile for microbiome analysis with primers 6S rRNA V3-V4 genome identification. The concentration of glucose, fructose, and galactose in the intestine has increased significantly caused by digested polysaccharides. The composition of bacteria plays a vital role in digesting polysaccharides, makes them quickly absorbed by duck’s intestine cells. The abundance of bacteria in all sample locations was dominated by the phylum Firmicutes, especially Lactobacilalles, Bacilalles, and Clostridialles. Over feeding may not effective in sugar and essential amino acid absorption, however, it may play an essential role in the diversity of gut bacteria to produce necessary component for duck’s physiology.

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Mitra Mazinani ◽  
Erdogan Memili ◽  
Brian J. Rude

Abstract In general, higher mammals need nine amino acids in their diets as building blocks to synthesize proteins while ruminants can produce some of them through the synthesis of microbial proteins. Diet is utilized by ruminal microorganisms to synthesize microbial protein (MCP) which is digested in the small intestine (SI). Although protein and amino acid requirements in ruminants are subject to microbial protein synthesis, it is not enough for optimal daily production. Therefore, there is a current trend towards supplementing amino acids in ruminant diets. In the rumen, free amino acids can be degraded by rumen bacteria, therefore, the AAs need to be supplemented in a protected form to be stable in the rumen and absorbable post-ruminal for metabolic purposes. The main site of amino acid absorption is the small intestine (SI), and there is a need to keep AA from ruminal degradation and direct them to absorption sites. Several approaches have been suggested by feed scientists to decrease this problem such as defaunation and debacterization of the rumen against amino acid-fermenting fungi and bacteria, inhibitors or antagonists of vitamin B6 enzymes, diet composition and also protecting AA from rumen degradation. A number of studies have evaluated the roles of amino acids concerning their effects on milk yield, growth, digestibility, feed intake and efficiency of nitrogen utilization of ruminants. The focus of this review was on experimental and research studies about AAs in feedstuff, metabolism, supplementing amino acids for ruminants and the current trends of using rumen protected amino acids.

Stefania Camastra ◽  
Maria Palumbo ◽  
Ferruccio Santini

AbstractBariatric surgery determines a rearrangement of the gastrointestinal tract that influences nutrient handling and plays a role in the metabolic changes observed after surgery. Most of the changes depend on the accelerated gastric emptying observed in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and, to a lesser extent, in sleeve gastrectomy (SG). The rapid delivery of meal into the jejunum, particularly after RYGB, contributes to the prompt appearance of glucose in peripheral circulation. Glucose increase is the principal determinant of GLP-1 increase with the consequent stimulation of insulin secretion, the latter balanced by a paradoxical glucagon increase that stimulates EGP to prevent hypoglycaemia. Protein digestion and amino acid absorption appear accelerated after RYGB but not after SG. After RYGB, the adaptation of the gut to the new condition participates to the metabolic change. The intestinal transit is delayed, the gut microbioma is changed, the epithelium becomes hypertrophic and increases the expression of glucose transporter and of the number of cell secreting hormones. These changes are not observed after SG. After RYGB—less after SG—bile acids (BA) increase, influencing glucose metabolism probably modulating FXR and TGR5 with an effect on insulin sensitivity. Muscle, hepatic and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity improve, and the gut reinforces the recovery of IS by enhancing glucose uptake and through the effect of the BA. The intestinal changes observed after RYGB result in a light malabsorption of lipid but not of carbohydrate and protein. In conclusion, functional and morphological adaptations of the gut after RYGB and SG activate inter-organs cross-talk that modulates the metabolic changes observed after surgery.Level of evidence Level V, narrative literature review.

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