stellar activity
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Salvatore Colombo ◽  
Ignazio Pillitteri ◽  
Salvatore Orlando ◽  
Giuseppina Micela

2021 ◽  
Vol 163 (1) ◽  
pp. 19
Rachael M. Roettenbacher ◽  
Samuel H. C. Cabot ◽  
Debra A. Fischer ◽  
John D. Monnier ◽  
Gregory W. Henry ◽  

Abstract The distortions of absorption line profiles caused by photospheric brightness variations on the surfaces of cool, main-sequence stars can mimic or overwhelm radial velocity (RV) shifts due to the presence of exoplanets. The latest generation of precision RV spectrographs aims to detect velocity amplitudes ≲ 10 cm s−1, but requires mitigation of stellar signals. Statistical techniques are being developed to differentiate between Keplerian and activity-related velocity perturbations. Two important challenges, however, are the interpretability of the stellar activity component as RV models become more sophisticated, and ensuring the lowest-amplitude Keplerian signatures are not inadvertently accounted for in flexible models of stellar activity. For the K2V exoplanet host ϵ Eridani, we separately used ground-based photometry to constrain Gaussian processes for modeling RVs and TESS photometry with a light-curve inversion algorithm to reconstruct the stellar surface. From the reconstructions of TESS photometry, we produced an activity model that reduced the rms scatter in RVs obtained with EXPRES from 4.72 to 1.98 m s−1. We present a pilot study using the CHARA Array and MIRC-X beam combiner to directly image the starspots seen in the TESS photometry. With the limited phase coverage, our spot detections are marginal with current data but a future dedicated observing campaign should allow for imaging, as well as allow the stellar inclination and orientation with respect to the debris disk to be definitively determined. This work shows that stellar surface maps obtained with high-cadence, time-series photometric and interferometric data can provide the constraints needed to accurately reduce RV scatter.

2021 ◽  
Vol 162 (6) ◽  
pp. 295
Bryson L. Cale ◽  
Michael Reefe ◽  
Peter Plavchan ◽  
Angelle Tanner ◽  
Eric Gaidos ◽  

Abstract We present updated radial-velocity (RV) analyses of the AU Mic system. AU Mic is a young (22 Myr) early-M dwarf known to host two transiting planets—P b ∼ 8.46 days, R b = 4.38 − 0.18 + 0.18 R ⊕ , P c ∼ 18.86 days, R c = 3.51 − 0.16 + 0.16 R ⊕ . With visible RVs from Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical echelle Spectrographs (CARMENES)-VIS, CHIRON, HARPS, HIRES, Minerva-Australis, and Tillinghast Reflector Echelle Spectrograph, as well as near-infrared (NIR) RVs from CARMENES-NIR, CSHELL, IRD, iSHELL, NIRSPEC, and SPIRou, we provide a 5σ upper limit to the mass of AU Mic c of M c ≤ 20.13 M ⊕ and present a refined mass of AU Mic b of M b = 20.12 − 1.57 + 1.72 M ⊕ . Used in our analyses is a new RV modeling toolkit to exploit the wavelength dependence of stellar activity present in our RVs via wavelength-dependent Gaussian processes. By obtaining near-simultaneous visible and near-infrared RVs, we also compute the temporal evolution of RV “color” and introduce a regressional method to aid in isolating Keplerian from stellar activity signals when modeling RVs in future works. Using a multiwavelength Gaussian process model, we demonstrate the ability to recover injected planets at 5σ significance with semi-amplitudes down to ≈10 m s−1 with a known ephemeris, more than an order of magnitude below the stellar activity amplitude. However, we find that the accuracy of the recovered semi-amplitudes is ∼50% for such signals with our model.

2021 ◽  
Vol 916 (2) ◽  
pp. 99
Alison O. Farrish ◽  
David Alexander ◽  
Christopher M. Johns-Krull ◽  
Minjing Li

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (6) ◽  
pp. 142
Heng-Geng Han ◽  
Kai-Ming Cui ◽  
Ji-Feng Liu ◽  
Hui-Qin Yang ◽  
Xuan Fang ◽  

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