Significant Clinical Benefit
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2021 ◽  
pp. OP.21.00206
Nicolas Sayegh ◽  
Umang Swami ◽  
Neeraj Agarwal

Management of metastatic prostate cancer has undergone a revolution over the past decade with the introduction of several novel agents and repurposing of others. Several clinical trials reported improved outcomes with the intensification of androgen deprivation therapy by the addition of docetaxel chemotherapy or novel hormonal agents (abiraterone, enzalutamide, or apalutamide) in the metastatic castration-sensitive state. Relugolix has been recently approved as the first oral gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor antagonist agent with a superior cardiovascular side-effect profile, and serum testosterone suppression compared with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, leuprolide. Poly-ADP ribose polymerase inhibitors (olaparib and rucaparib) have demonstrated significant clinical benefit for patients harboring deleterious mutations in genes belonging to the homologous recombination repair pathway and have received Food and Drug Administration approval. Recently, lutetium-177-prostate-specific membrane antigen-617 with standard of care treatment has shown to improve overall survival in men with advanced-stage prostate-specific membrane antigen–positive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. These recent approvals, successes, and the ongoing investigation of multiple novel agents are expected to continue to dramatically improve survival outcomes of men with metastatic prostate cancer in the coming years.

Perfusion ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 026765912110339
Shek-yin Au ◽  
Ka-man Fong ◽  
Chun-Fung Sunny Tsang ◽  
Ka-Chun Alan Chan ◽  
Chi Yuen Wong ◽  

Introduction: The intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) and Impella are left ventricular unloading devices with peripheral venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) in place and later serve as bridging therapy when VA-ECMO is terminated. We aimed to determine the potential differences in clinical outcomes and rate of complications between the two combinations of mechanical circulatory support. Methods: This was a retrospective, single institutional cohort study conducted in the intensive care unit (ICU) of Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong. Inclusion criteria included all patients aged ⩾18 years, who had VA-ECMO support, and who had left ventricular unloading by either IABP or Impella between January 1, 2018 and October 31, 2020. Patients <18 years old, with central VA-ECMO, who did not require left ventricular unloading, or who underwent surgical venting procedures were excluded. The primary outcome was ECMO duration. Secondary outcomes included length of stay (LOS) in the ICU, hospital LOS, mortality, and complication rate. Results: Fifty-two patients with ECMO + IABP and 14 patients with ECMO + Impella were recruited. No statistically significant difference was observed in terms of ECMO duration (2.5 vs 4.6 days, p = 0.147), ICU LOS (7.7 vs 10.8 days, p = 0.367), and hospital LOS (14.8 vs 16.5 days, p = 0.556) between the two groups. No statistically significant difference was observed in the ECMO, ICU, and hospital mortalities between the two groups. Specific complications related to the ECMO and Impella combination were also noted. Conclusions: Impella was not shown to offer a statistically significant clinical benefit compared with IABP in conjunction with ECMO. Clinicians should be aware of the specific complications of using Impella.

2021 ◽  
Kuan-Wei Peng ◽  
Allison Klotz ◽  
Arcan Guven ◽  
Unnati Kapadnis ◽  
Shobha Ravipaty ◽  

Parkinson’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder in which loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra results in a clinically heterogeneous group with variable motor and non-motor symptoms with a degree of misdiagnosis. Only 3-5% of sporadic Parkinson’s patients present with genetic abnormalities, thus environmental, metabolic, and other unknown causes contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease, which highlights the critical need for biomarkers. There could be a significant clinical benefit to treating Parkinson’s disease at the earliest stage and identify at-risk populations once disease-modifying treatments are available. In the present study, we prospectively collected and analyzed plasma samples from 201 Parkinson’s disease patients and 199 age-matched non-diseased controls. Multiomic and Bayesian artificial intelligence analysis of molecular and clinical data identified the diagnostic utility of N-acetyl putrescine (NAP) in combination with smell (B-SIT), depression/anxiety (HADS), and acting out dreams (RBD1Q) clinical measurements. The clinical and biomarker panel demonstrated an area under the curve, AUC = 0.9, positive predictive value, PPV=0.91, and negative predictive value, NPV=0.66 utilizing all four variables. The assessed diagnostic panel demonstrates combinatorial utility in diagnosing Parkinson’s disease, allowing for an integrated interpretation of disease pathophysiology and highlighting the use of multi-tiered panels in neurological disease diagnosis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yating Zhao ◽  
Liu Liu ◽  
Liang Weng

Over the past decade, diverse PD-1/PD-L1 blockades have demonstrated significant clinical benefit in across a wide range of tumor and cancer types. With the increasing number of PD-1/PD-L1 blockades available in the market, differences between the clinical performance of each of them started to be reported. Here, we provide a comprehensive historical and biological perspective regarding the underlying mechanism and clinical performance of PD-1/PD-L1 blockades, with an emphasis on the comparisons of their clinical efficacy and safety. The real-world evidence indicated that PD-1 blockade may be more effective than the PD-L1, though no significant differences were found as regards to their safety profiles. Future head-to-head studies are warranted for direct comparison between them. Finally, we summarize the yet to be elucidated questions and future promise of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy, including a need to explore novel biomarkers, novel combinatorial strategies, and their clinical use on chronic infection.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Stephen Johnston ◽  
Joyce O’Shaughnessy ◽  
Miguel Martin ◽  
Jens Huober ◽  
Masakazu Toi ◽  

AbstractIn MONARCH 3, continuous dosing of abemaciclib with an aromatase inhibitor (AI) conferred significant clinical benefit to postmenopausal women with HR+, HER2− advanced breast cancer. We report data for clinically prognostic subgroups: liver metastases, progesterone receptor status, tumor grade, bone-only disease, ECOG performance status, and treatment-free interval (TFI) from an additional 12-month follow-up (after final progression-free survival [PFS] readout). In the intent-to-treat population, after median follow-up of approximately 39 months, the updated PFS was 28.2 versus 14.8 months (hazard ratio [HR], 0.525; 95% confidence interval, 0.415–0.665) in abemaciclib versus placebo arms, respectively. Time to chemotherapy (HR, 0.513), time to second disease progression (HR, 0.637), and duration of response (HR, 0.466) were also statistically significantly prolonged with the addition of abemaciclib to AI. Treatment benefit was observed across all subgroups, as evidenced by objective response rate change from the addition of abemaciclib to AI, with the largest effects observed in patients with liver metastases, progesterone receptor-negative tumors, high-grade tumors, or TFI < 36 months. Extended follow-up in the MONARCH 3 trial further confirmed that the addition of abemaciclib to AI conferred significant treatment benefit to all subgroups, including those with poorer prognosis.

Blood ◽  
2021 ◽  
Nikoletta Psatha ◽  
Aphrodite Georgakopoulou ◽  
Chang Li ◽  
Vivek Nandakumar ◽  
Grigorios Georgolopoulos ◽  

Thalassemia or sickle cell patients with hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) have an ameliorated clinical phenotype and in some cases, can achieve transfusion independence. Inactivation via genome editing of γ-globin developmental suppressors, such as BCL11A or LRF/ZBTB7A, or of their binding sites have been shown to significantly increase expression of endogenous fetal hemoglobin (HbF). To broaden the therapeutic window beyond a single editing approach, we have explored combinations of cis and trans editing targets to enhance HbF reactivation. Multiplex mutagenesis in adult CD34+ cells was well tolerated and did not lead to any detectable defect in the cells' proliferation and differentiation, either in vitro or in vivo. The combination of one trans and one cis mutation resulted in high editing retention in vivo, coupled with almost pancellular HbF expression in NBSGW mice. The greater in vivo performance of this combination was also recapitulated using a novel helper dependent adenoviral-CRISPR vector (HD-Ad-dualCRISPR) in CD34+ cells from β-thalassemia patients transplanted to NBSGW mice. A pronounced increase in HbF expression was observed in human red blood cells in mice with established predominant β0/β0 thalassemic hemopoiesis after in vivo injection of the HD-Ad-dualCRISPR vector. Collectively, our data suggest that the combination of cis and trans fetal globin reactivation mutations has the potential to significantly increase HbF both totally and on a per cell basis over single editing and could thus provide significant clinical benefit to patients with severe beta globin phenotype.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Radka Vrbova ◽  
Stepan Podzimek ◽  
Lucie Himmlova ◽  
Adela Roubickova ◽  
Marketa Janovska ◽  

This study is aimed at proving the clinical benefit of the MELISA® test in the minimization or complete elimination of health problems in patients with confirmed hypersensitivity to metals used for tissue replacements. A group of 305 patients aged 20-75 years with previously proven metal hypersensitivity (initial MELISA® test), mainly to titanium and then to another fifteen metals, was chosen from the database at the Institute of Dental Medicine. From these patients, a final group of 42 patients agreed to participate in the study, 35 of which were female and 7 were male. The patients completed a special questionnaire aimed at information regarding change of health status from their last visit and determining whether the results of the initial MELISA® test and recommendations based on it were beneficial for patients or not. They were clinically examined, and peripheral blood samples were taken to perform follow-up MELISA® tests. Questionnaire data was processed, and the follow-up MELISA® test results were compared with the results of the initial MELISA® tests. For statistical analysis, the Fisher’s exact test and paired T -test were used. Thirty-two patients reported that they followed the recommendations based on the results of the initial MELISA® tests, and of these, 30 patients (94%) confirmed significant health improvement. Six patients did not follow the recommendation, and from these, only one patient reported an improvement in his health problems. By comparison of the initial and follow-up MELISA® test results, it can be stated that the hypersensitivity to the given metal decreased or disappeared after the therapeutic interventions performed based on the initial MELISA® test results. The evaluation of the data obtained from patients in this study confirmed a significant clinical benefit of MELISA® test.

2021 ◽  
Vol 39 (15_suppl) ◽  
pp. 3050-3050
Richard D. Kim ◽  
James M. Cleary ◽  
Alexis Diane Leal ◽  
Aparna Raj Parikh ◽  
David P. Ryan ◽  

3050 Background: TAK-164 is a second-generation ADC comprising a human IgG1 monoclonal antibody targeting GCC conjugated to a DNA-damaging alkylating agent by a peptide linker. TAK-164 demonstrated cytotoxic and antitumor activity in GCC-expressing cells and xenograft mouse models. This first-in-human study investigated the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and preliminary efficacy of TAK-164. Methods: Adult pts with GCC-positive, advanced/metastatic GI cancers received TAK-164 intravenously on day 1 of a 21-day cycle (Q3W). Dose escalation proceeded based on cycle 1 safety data via a Bayesian model of modified toxicity probability interval starting at 0.004 mg/kg. Results: Thirty-one pts were enrolled. Median age was 58 years (range 32–72), 58.1% of pts were female and 64.5% had colon carcinoma. The median number of prior lines of therapy was 4 (range 2–9). TAK-164 was given at 0.004 (n = 1), 0.008 (n = 1), 0.016 (n = 1), 0.032 (n = 5), 0.064 (n = 7), 0.12 (n = 7), 0.16 (n = 2), 0.19 (n = 3), 0.25 (n = 3) and 0.32 mg/kg (n = 1). No pts had dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) in cycle 1 up to 0.32 mg/kg. Three pts had adverse events (AEs) after cycle 1 considered to be DLTs: 1 pt receiving 0.19 mg/kg (grade 3 pyrexia and grade 5 hepatic failure) and 2 pts receiving 0.25 mg/kg (1 pt had grade 3 nausea, and grade 4 platelet count decrease and neutrophil count decrease; 1 pt had grade 4 hepatic failure and grade 4 platelet count decrease). Dosing was capped at 0.19 mg/kg due to hepatic toxicity and the recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) was determined as 0.064 mg/kg based on safety and tolerability beyond cycle 1. Overall, pts received a median of 2 (range 1–8) treatment cycles. TAK-164-related treatment-emergent AEs (TEAEs) reported in 77.4% of pts included platelet count decrease (58.1%), fatigue (38.7%), and anemia (32.3%). TAK-164-related grade ≥3 TEAEs reported in 32.3% of pts included platelet count decrease (12.9%), alanine aminotransferase increase, aspartate aminotransferase increase, fatigue, and anemia (all 9.7%). Three pts discontinued due to TAK-164-related TEAEs. There was a dose-dependent increase in TAK-164 maximum plasma concentration and exposure over the range 0.016–0.32 mg/kg, with no meaningful accumulation in PK with repeat Q3W dosing. One pt receiving TAK-164 0.19 mg/kg showed γH2AX induction via immunohistochemistry in a post-treatment biopsy, demonstrating target engagement. One pt with low baseline GCC expression who received 5 cycles of TAK-164 0.008 mg/kg had an unconfirmed partial response at cycle 4; 11 of 25 (44.0%) evaluable pts had a best overall response of stable disease. Conclusions: TAK-164 appeared to have a manageable safety profile up to 0.064 mg/kg in pts with advanced GI cancers; hepatic toxicity was identified as a potential risk. The RP2D was determined as 0.064 mg/kg but was considered insufficient to derive significant clinical benefit. Clinical trial information: NCT03449030.

2021 ◽  
Fibhaa Syed ◽  
Mohammad Ali Arif ◽  
Rauf Niazi ◽  
Jaffer Bin Baqar ◽  
Ume Laila Hashmi ◽  

Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising strategy to break the chain of transmission of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Aims: This trial aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of PrEP with various doses of HCQ against a placebo among high-risk healthcare providers (HCPs). Methods: A phase II, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted at a tertiary care hospital. A total of 228 HCPs were screened, we included 200 subjects with no active or past SARS-CoV-2 infection. Subjects of experimental groups 1-3 received HCQ in various doses and those in the control group received placebo. The study outcomes in terms of safety and efficacy were monitored. Participants exhibiting COVID-19 symptoms were tested for SARS-CoV-2 during the study and also by the end of the 12th week, with PCR or IgM and IgG serology. Results: Overall, 146 of 200 participants reported exposure to a confirmed COVID-19 case in the first month, 189 in the 2nd month and 192 were exposed by the 12th week of the study. Moreover, the precautionary practices, i.e. use of personal protective equipment (PPE), significantly varied; initially more than 80% of the exposed HCPs weren't ensuring the PPE used by the patients treated by them. However, it gradually developed with the increasing knowledge of the virus. As far as safety is concerned, mild treatment-related side effects were observed among the interventional and placebo arm patients. While none of the participants were critical, and a few had mild illness by the end of the 12th week, requiring only outpatient observation with no hospitalization. There was no significant clinical benefit of PrEP with HCQ as compared to placebo (p>0.05). Conclusion: It is concluded from the study findings that the PrEP HCQ does not significantly prevent illness compatible with COVID-19 or confirmed infection among high-risk HCPs.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (5) ◽  
pp. e0251375
Madhav Prasad Yadav ◽  
Sanjana Ballal ◽  
Ranjit Kumar Sahoo ◽  
Madhavi Tripathi ◽  
Nishikant Avinash Damle ◽  

Objective Investigators have extensively explored the short-term safety and efficacy data on 177Lu-PSMA-617 radioligand therapy (RLT) in mCRPC patients. However, scarce literature is reported on the long-term outcome of these patients. The current goal of this study is focused on the long-term outcome of mCRPC patients treated with 177Lu-PSMA-617 RLT. Methods Among 135 patients, 121 mCRPC patients fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were included in the final analysis. Patients received a median of 3 cycles of 177Lu-PSMA-617 RLT at 6 to 12-week intervals. Primary endpoint included overall survival (OS) and secondary endpoints involved progression-free survival (PFS), predictive factors of OS and PFS, PSA response rate, molecular response, clinical response, and toxicity assessment. Results The median administered cumulative activity was 20 GBq (3.7–37 GBq). The median follow-up duration was 36 months (6–72 months). The estimated median PFS and OS were 12 months (mo) (95% CI: 10.3–13 mo) and 16 mo (95% CI: 13–17 mo), respectively. Any PSA decline and PSA decline >50% was achieved in 73% and 61% of the patients, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed only failure to achieve >50% PSA decline as a significant factor associated with a poor PFS. Prognostic factors associated with reduced OS included, failure to experience >50% PSA decline, heavily pre-treated patient cohort who received >2 lines of prior treatment options, and patient sub-group treated with ≥2 lines of chemotherapy. Patients re-treated with additional treatment options after attaining 177Lu-PSMA refractory disease showed a remarkably prolonged OS. A significant clinical benefit was achieved post 177Lu-PSMA-617 RLT. The most common toxicities observed were fatigue (34.7%), followed by nausea (33%), and dry mouth (24.7%). Conclusion The current study supports the short-term safety and efficacy results of high response rates, prolonged PFS and OS, improved quality of life, and low treatment-related toxicities in patients treated with 177Lu-PSMA-617 radioligand therapy.

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