chain fatty acids
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2022 ◽  
Vol 62 ◽  
pp. 36-42
Tong Xu ◽  
Xinyue Wu ◽  
Jia Liu ◽  
Jiayi Sun ◽  
Xiaobo Wang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Eman Wehedy ◽  
Ibrahim F. Shatat ◽  
Souhaila Al Khodor

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasing global health burden. Current treatments for CKD include therapeutics to target factors that contribute to CKD progression, including renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system inhibitors, and drugs to control blood pressure and proteinuria control. Recently, associations between chronic disease processes and the human microbiota and its metabolites have been demonstrated. Dysbiosis—a change in the microbial diversity—has been observed in patients with CKD. The relationship between CKD and dysbiosis is bidirectional; gut-derived metabolites and toxins affect the progression of CKD, and the uremic milieu affects the microbiota. The accumulation of microbial metabolites and toxins is linked to the loss of kidney functions and increased mortality risk, yet renoprotective metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids and bile acids help restore kidney functions and increase the survival rate in CKD patients. Specific dietary interventions to alter the gut microbiome could improve clinical outcomes in patients with CKD. Low-protein and high-fiber diets increase the abundance of bacteria that produce short-chain fatty acids and anti-inflammatory bacteria. Fluctuations in the urinary microbiome are linked to increased susceptibility to infection and antibiotic resistance. In this review, we describe the potential role of the gut, urinary and blood microbiome in CKD pathophysiology and assess the feasibility of modulating the gut microbiota as a therapeutic tool for treating CKD.

2022 ◽  
Chaima Ezzine ◽  
Lea Loison ◽  
Christine Bole-Feysot ◽  
Pierre Dechelotte ◽  
Moise Coeffier ◽  

The gut microbiota produces a wide variety of metabolites, which interact with intestinal cells and contribute to host physiology. These metabolites regulate intestinal cell activities by modulating either gene transcription or post-translational modifications of gut proteins. The effect of gut commensal bacteria on SUMOylation, an essential ubiquitin-like modification in intestinal physiology, remains however unknown. Here, we show that short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and branched chain fatty acids (BCFAs) produced by the gut microbiota increase protein SUMOylation in different intestinal cell lines in a pH-dependent manner. We demonstrate that these metabolites induce an oxidative stress which inactivates intestinal deSUMOylases and promotes the hyperSUMOylation of chromatin-bound proteins. In order to determine the impact of these modifications on intestinal physiology, we focused on the NF-kappaB signaling pathway, a key player in inflammation known to be regulated by SUMOylation. We demonstrated that the hyperSUMOylation induced by SCFAs/BCFAs inhibits the activation of the NF-kappaB pathway in intestinal cells by blocking the degradation of the inhibitory factor IkappaBalpha in response to TNFalpha. This results in a decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines expression, such as IL8 or CCL20, as well as a decrease in intestinal epithelial permeability in response to TNFalpha. Together, our results reveal that fatty acids produced by gut commensal bacteria regulate intestinal physiology by modulating SUMOylation and illustrate a new mechanism of dampening of host inflammatory responses by the gut microbiota.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Federica Rubbino ◽  
Valentina Garlatti ◽  
Valeria Garzarelli ◽  
Luca Massimino ◽  
Salvatore Spanò ◽  

AbstractGPR120 (encoded by FFAR4 gene) is a receptor for long chain fatty acids, activated by ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs), and expressed in many cell types. Its role in the context of colorectal cancer (CRC) is still puzzling with many controversial evidences. Here, we explored the involvement of epithelial GPR120 in the CRC development. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to mimic the conditional deletion of the receptor from gut epithelium. Intestinal permeability and integrity of mucus layer were assessed by using Evans blue dye and immunofluorescence for MUC-2 protein, respectively. Microbiota composition, presence of lipid mediators and short chain fatty acids were analyzed in the stools of conditional GPR120 and wild type (WT) mice. Incidence and grade of tumors were evaluated in all groups of mice before and after colitis-associated cancer. Finally, GPR120 expression was analyzed in 9 human normal tissues, 9 adenomas, and 17 primary adenocarcinomas. Our work for the first time highlights the role of the receptor in the progression of colorectal cancer. We observed that the loss of epithelial GPR120 in the gut results into increased intestinal permeability, microbiota translocation and dysbiosis, which turns into hyperproliferation of epithelial cells, likely through the activation of β -catenin signaling. Therefore, the loss of GPR120 represents an early event of CRC, but avoid its progression as invasive cancer. these results demonstrate that the epithelial GPR120 receptor is essential to maintain the mucosal barrier integrity and to prevent CRC developing. Therefore, our data pave the way to GPR120 as an useful marker for the phenotypic characterization of CRC lesions and as new potential target for CRC prevention.

Neurology ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 10.1212/WNL.0000000000013225
Szu-Ju Chen ◽  
Chieh-Chang Chen ◽  
Hsin-Yu Liao ◽  
Ya-Ting Lin ◽  
Yu-Wei Wu ◽  

Background and Objectives:Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are gut microbial metabolites that promote the disease process in a rodent model of Parkinson’s disease (PD), but fecal levels of SCFAs in PD patients are reduced. Simultaneous assessments of fecal and plasma SCFA levels, and their inter-relationships with the PD disease process are scarce. We aimed to compare fecal and plasma levels of different SCFAs subtypes in PD patients and healthy controls to delineate their interrelations and link to gut microbiota changes and clinical severity of PD.Methods:A cohort of 96 PD patients and 85 controls were recruited from National Taiwan University Hospital. Fecal and plasma concentrations of SCFAs were measured using chromatography and mass spectrometry. Gut microbiota was analyzed using metagenomic shotgun sequencing. Body mass index and medical co-morbidities were evaluated, and dietary information was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire. To assess motor and cognitive impairment, we used the Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) and the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE).Results:Compared with controls, PD patients had lower fecal but higher plasma concentrations of acetate, propionate, and butyrate. After adjustment for age, sex, disease duration, and anti-PD medication dosage, MDS-UPDRS part III motor scores correlated with reduced fecal levels of acetate (ρ = -0.37, p = 0.012), propionate (ρ = -0.32, p = 0.036), and butyrate (ρ = -0.40, p = 0.004) and with increased plasma propionate concentrations (ρ = 0.26, p = 0.042) in PD patients. MMSE scores negatively correlated with plasma levels of butyrate (ρ = -0.09, p = 0.027) and valerate (ρ = -0.032, p = 0.033) after adjustment for confounders. SCFAs-producing gut bacteria correlated positively with fecal levels of SCFAs in healthy controls but revealed no association in patients with PD. In the PD patient group, the abundance of pro-inflammatory microbes, such as Clostridiales bacterium NK3B98 and Ruminococcus sp. AM07-15, significantly correlated with decreased fecal levels and increased plasma levels of SCFAs, especially propionic acid.Discussion:Reductions in fecal SCFAs but increased plasma SCFAs were observed in PD patients and corelated to specific gut microbiota changes and the clinical severity of PD.Classification of evidence:This study provides Class III evidence that gut metabolite SCFAs distinguish between PD patients and controls, and are associated with disease severity in patients with PD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jules Petit ◽  
Irene de Bruijn ◽  
Mark R. G. Goldman ◽  
Erik van den Brink ◽  
Wilbert F. Pellikaan ◽  

Dietary supplementation of fish with β-glucans has been commonly associated with immunomodulation and generally accepted as beneficial for fish health. However, to date the exact mechanisms of immunomodulation by β-glucan supplementation in fish have remained elusive. In mammals, a clear relation between high-fibre diets, such as those including β-glucans, and diet-induced immunomodulation via intestinal microbiota and associated metabolites has been observed. In this study, first we describe by 16S rRNA sequencing the active naive microbiota of common carp intestine. Based on the abundance of the genus Bacteroides, well known for their capacity to degrade and ferment carbohydrates, we hypothesize that common carp intestinal microbiota could ferment dietary β-glucans. Indeed, two different β-glucan preparations (curdlan and MacroGard®) were both fermented in vitro, albeit with distinct fermentation dynamics and distinct production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Second, we describe the potential immunomodulatory effects of the three dominant SCFAs (acetate, butyrate, and propionate) on head kidney leukocytes, showing effects on both nitric oxide production and expression of several cytokines (il-1b, il-6, tnfα, and il-10) in vitro. Interestingly, we also observed a regulation of expression of several gpr40L genes, which were recently described as putative SCFA receptors. Third, we describe how a single in vivo oral gavage of carp with MacroGard® modulated simultaneously, the expression of several pro-inflammatory genes (il-1b, il-6, tnfα), type I IFN-associated genes (tlr3.1, mx3), and three specific gpr40L genes. The in vivo observations provide indirect support to our in vitro data and the possible role of SCFAs in β-glucan-induced immunomodulation. We discuss how β-glucan-induced immunomodulatory effects can be explained, at least in part, by fermentation of MacroGard® by specific bacteria, part of the naive microbiota of common carp intestine, and how a subsequent production of SFCAs could possibly explain immunomodulation by β-glucan via SCFA receptors present on leukocytes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Jingjing Xiong ◽  
Hongwei Hu ◽  
Chuanzhi Xu ◽  
Jianwen Yin ◽  
Mei Liu ◽  

Abstract Background To reveal the changes of intestinal microbial abundance and composition, as well as the microbiota metabolic levels of bile acids and short chain fatty acids of healthy preschool children during their growth. Methods Feces of 120 healthy newborns and 150 healthy children aged 6 months to 6 years were collected. Then the composition of intestinal flora was analyzed by 16S rRNA, and the contents of bile acids and short chain fatty acids in feces were detected by LC-MS and GS methods, respectively. Results The composition and function of intestinal microflora were not stable in neonatal period but significantly improved at 6 months after birth, and gradually stabilized and tended to adult-like formation after 2–3 years old. The levels of short chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids were consistent with the development of gut microbiota. Conclusion The age of 6 months may be a critical period for the development of intestinal microflora in children.

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