electrochemical response
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Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 558
Erican Santiago ◽  
Shailu Shree Poudyal ◽  
Sung Y. Shin ◽  
Hyeun Joong Yoon

A graphene oxide (GO)-based cortisol biosensor was developed to accurately detect cortisol concentrations from sweat samples at point-of-care (POC) sites. A reference electrode, counter electrode, and working electrode make up the biosensor, and the working electrode was functionalized using multiple layers consisting of GO and antibodies, including Protein A, IgG, and anti-Cab. Sweat samples contact the anti-Cab antibodies to transport electrons to the electrode, resulting in an electrochemical current response. The sensor was tested at each additional functionalization layer and at cortisol concentrations between 0.1 and 150 ng/mL to determine how the current response differed. A potentiostat galvanostat device was used to measure and quantify the electrochemical response in the GO-based biosensor. In both tests, the electrochemical responses were reduced in magnitude with the addition of antibody layers and with increased cortisol concentrations. The proposed cortisol biosensor has increased accuracy with each additional functionalization layer, and the proposed device has the capability to accurately measure cortisol concentrations for diagnostic purposes.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 555
Monica Miranda Mugica ◽  
Kay Louise McGuinness ◽  
Nathan Scott Lawrence

This work summarizes the electrochemical response of a salicylic acid-based carbon electrode for use as a novel solid-state reference electrode in a redox-based pH sensor. This novel reference produces a pH insensitive response over a range of pH 3–10 in solutions with low buffer concentrations, different compositions, conductivities, and ionic strengths is produced. The pH of the local environment is shown to be determined by the chemistry and the electrochemical response of the redox active species on the surface of the electrode; the local pH can be controlled by the electropolymerized salicylic acid moieties due to the acid concentration on the surface, avoiding any perturbation in environmental pH and leading to a stable novel reference system. Sensitivities of −7.1 mV/pH unit, −2.4 mV/pH unit, −0.2 mV/pH unit, and 2.5 mV/pH units were obtained for different food medias, hydroponic solution, seawater, and cell-culture media, respectively, confirming its ability to control the local pH of the electrode. This reference system is paired with a new pH sensing element based on electropolymerized flavanone to provide a calibration free, pH sensitive sensor to effectively and accurately measure the pH of various media with high viscosity, low conductivity, low/high buffer concentration or cell-culture environment, presenting a maximum error of +/−0.03 pH units.

Micromachines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 103
Alexander R. Harris ◽  
Carrie Newbold ◽  
Dimitra Stathopoulos ◽  
Paul Carter ◽  
Robert Cowan ◽  

The electrochemical performance of platinum electrodes was assessed in vitro and in vivo to determine the impact of electrode implantation and the relevance of in vitro testing in predicting in vivo behaviour. A significant change in electrochemical response was seen after electrode polarisation. As a result, initial in vitro measurements were poor predictors of subsequent measurements performed in vitro or in vivo. Charge storage capacity and charge density measurements from initial voltammetric measurements were not correlated with subsequent measurements. Electrode implantation also affected the electrochemical impedance. The typically reported impedance at 1 kHz was a very poor predictor of electrode performance. Lower frequencies were significantly more dependent on electrode properties, while higher frequencies were dependent on solution properties. Stronger correlations in impedance at low frequencies were seen between in vitro and in vivo measurements after electrode activation had occurred. Implanting the electrode increased the resistance of the electrochemical circuit, with bone having a higher resistivity than soft tissue. In contrast, protein fouling and fibrous tissue formation had a minimal impact on electrochemical response. In vivo electrochemical measurements also typically use a quasi-reference electrode, may operate in a 2-electrode system, and suffer from uncompensated resistance. The impact of these experimental conditions on electrochemical performance and the relevance of in vitro electrode assessment is discussed. Recommended in vitro testing protocols for assessing bionic electrodes are presented.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 22
Farah Lamara ◽  
Nedjemeddine Bounar ◽  
Benjamín Solsona ◽  
Francisco J. Llopis ◽  
María Pilar Pico ◽  

In this work, six samples of CeO2 are successfully prepared by diverse synthesis routes leading to different microstructures regarding both morphology and particle size. The structural and microstructural characteristics presented by the samples and their influence on the electrochemical response of the prepared anodes are analyzed. In particular, the Ce-CMK3 sample, synthesized from a mesoporous carbon obtained through a CMK3 silica template, displays an enhanced electrochemical response. Thus, capacity values of ~220 mA h g−1 are obtained at a current rate of 0.155 A g−1 after 50 cycles and an excellent cyclability at intermediate current densities. On the other hand, it is observed that the capacity values are satisfactorily recovered at 0.31 A g−1, displaying ~100 mA h g−1 after 550 cycles and efficiencies close to 100%. The electrochemical performance is interpreted considering the microstructural peculiarities of this anode, which are deeply analyzed.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (24) ◽  
pp. 7912
Nikola Macháčková ◽  
Jitřenka Jírů ◽  
Vojtěch Hybášek ◽  
Jaroslav Fojt

In the field of orthopedic or dental implants, titanium and its alloys are most commonly used because of their excellent mechanical and corrosion properties and good biocompatibility. After implantation into the patient’s body, there is a high risk of developing bacterial inflammation, which negatively affects the surrounding tissues and the implant itself. Early detection of inflammation could be done with a pH sensor. In this work, pH-sensitive systems based on TiO2-Ru and TiO2-RuO2 combinations were fabricated and investigated. As a base material, Ti-6Al-4V alloy nanostructured by anodic oxidation was used. Ruthenium was successfully deposited on nanotubular TiO2 using cyclic polarization, galvanostatic and potentiostatic mode. Potentiostatic mode proved to be the most suitable. The selected samples were oxidized by cyclic polarization to form a TiO2-RuO2 system. The success of the oxidation was confirmed by XPS analysis. The electrochemical response of the systems to pH change was measured in saline solution using different techniques. The measurement of open circuit potential showed that unoxidized samples (TiO2-Ru) exhibited sub-Nernstian behavior (39.2 and 35.8 mV/pH). The oxidized sample (TiO2-RuO2) containing the highest amount of Ru exhibited super-Nernstian behavior (67.3 mV/pH). The Mott–Schottky analysis proved to be the best method. The use of the electrochemical impedance method can also be considered, provided that greater stability of the samples is achieved.

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