ion conductance
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Pak Hin Chow ◽  
Charles D. Cox ◽  
Jinxin V. Pei ◽  
Nancy Anabaraonye ◽  
Saeed Nourmohammadi ◽  

In sickle cell disease (SCD), the pathological shift of red blood cells (RBCs) into distorted morphologies under hypoxic conditions follows activation of a cationic leak current (Psickle) and cell dehydration. Prior work showed sickling was reduced by 5-hydroxylmethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF), which stabilized mutant hemoglobin and also blocked the Psickle current in RBCs, though the molecular basis of this 5-HMF-sensitive cation current remained a mystery. Work here is the first to test the hypothesis that Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) cation channels contribute to the monovalent component of Psickle. Human AQP1 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes were evaluated for sensitivity to 5-HMF and four derivatives known to have differential efficacies in preventing RBC sickling. Ion conductances were measured by two-electrode voltage clamp, and osmotic water permeability by optical swelling assays. Compounds tested were: 5-HMF; 5-PMFC (5-(phenoxymethyl)furan-2-carbaldehyde); 5-CMFC (5-(4-chlorophenoxymethyl)furan-2-carbaldehyde); 5-NMFC (5-(2-nitrophenoxymethyl)-furan-2-carbaldehyde); and VZHE006 (tert-butyl (5-formylfuran-2-yl)methyl carbonate). The most effective anti-sickling agent, 5-PMFC, was the most potent inhibitor of the AQP1 ion conductance (98% block at 100 µM). The order of sensitivity of the AQP1 conductance to inhibition was 5-PMFC > VZHE006 > 5-CMFC ≥ 5-NMFC, which corresponded with effectiveness in protecting RBCs from sickling. None of the compounds altered AQP1 water channel activity. Combined application of a selective AQP1 ion channel blocker AqB011 (80 µM) with a selective hemoglobin modifying agent 5-NMFC (2.5 mM) increased anti-sickling effectiveness in red blood cells from human SCD patients. Another non-selective cation channel known to be expressed in RBCs, Piezo1, was unaffected by 2 mM 5-HMF. Results suggest that inhibition of AQP1 ion channels and capacity to modify hemoglobin are combined features of the most effective anti-sickling agents. Future therapeutics aimed at both targets could hold promise for improved treatments for SCD.

Sam W. Henderson ◽  
Saeed Nourmohammadi ◽  
Sunita A. Ramesh ◽  
Andrea J. Yool

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Manuel Manfred Nietert ◽  
Liza Vinhoven ◽  
Florian Auer ◽  
Sylvia Hafkemeyer ◽  
Frauke Stanke

Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease caused by mutations in CFTR, which encodes a chloride and bicarbonate transporter expressed in exocrine epithelia throughout the body. Recently, some therapeutics became available that directly target dysfunctional CFTR, yet research for more effective substances is ongoing. The database CandActCFTR aims to provide detailed and comprehensive information on candidate therapeutics for the activation of CFTR-mediated ion conductance aiding systems-biology approaches to identify substances that will synergistically activate CFTR-mediated ion conductance based on published data.Results: Until 10/2020, we derived data from 108 publications on 3,109 CFTR-relevant substances via the literature database PubMed and further 666 substances via ChEMBL; only 19 substances were shared between these sources. One hundred and forty-five molecules do not have a corresponding entry in PubChem or ChemSpider, which indicates that there currently is no single comprehensive database on chemical substances in the public domain. Apart from basic data on all compounds, we have visualized the chemical space derived from their chemical descriptors via a principal component analysis annotated for CFTR-relevant biological categories. Our online query tools enable the search for most similar compounds and provide the relevant annotations in a structured way. The integration of the KNIME software environment in the back-end facilitates a fast and user-friendly maintenance of the provided data sets and a quick extension with new functionalities, e.g., new analysis routines. CandActBase automatically integrates information from other online sources, such as synonyms from PubChem and provides links to other resources like ChEMBL or the source publications.Conclusion: CandActCFTR aims to establish a database model of candidate cystic fibrosis therapeutics for the activation of CFTR-mediated ion conductance to merge data from publicly available sources. Using CandActBase, our strategy to represent data from several internet resources in a merged and organized form can also be applied to other use cases. For substances tested as CFTR activating compounds, the search function allows users to check if a specific compound or a closely related substance was already tested in the CF field. The acquired information on tested substances will assist in the identification of the most promising candidates for future therapeutics.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2086 (1) ◽  
pp. 012074
M V Zhukov ◽  
S Yu Lukashenko ◽  
I D Sapozhnikov ◽  
M L Felshtyn ◽  
O M Gorbenko ◽  

Abstract Scanning ion-conductance microscope with independent piezoscanners in the lateral scanning plane XY and Z axis was designed and tested. For precise, fast and safe approach of the nanopipette to the sample surface, a coarse approach system based on a piezoinertial mover was used. Measurements of test periodic polymer structures were carried out using nanopipettes with an inner pipette diameter of about 100-150 nm. The optimal geometric parameters of the nanopipette were found and the resolution of the method was estimated. To increase the stability and reproducibility of SICM images, the Z-modulation of the position of the substrate with the sample was realized using a bimorph piezomembrane.

Micromachines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1491
Rise Akasaka ◽  
Masashi Ozawa ◽  
Yuji Nashimoto ◽  
Kosuke Ino ◽  
Hitoshi Shiku

We present a novel methodology based on ion conductance to evaluate the perfusability of vascular vessels in microfluidic devices without microscopic imaging. The devices consisted of five channels, with the center channel filled with fibrin/collagen gel containing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Fibroblasts were cultured in the other channels to improve the vascular network formation. To form vessel structures bridging the center channel, HUVEC monolayers were prepared on both side walls of the gel. During the culture, the HUVECs migrated from the monolayer and connected to the HUVECs in the gel, and vascular vessels formed, resulting in successful perfusion between the channels after culturing for 3–5 d. To evaluate perfusion without microscopic imaging, Ag/AgCl wires were inserted into the channels, and ion currents were obtained to measure the ion conductance between the channels separated by the HUVEC monolayers. As the HUVEC monolayers blocked the ion current flow, the ion currents were low before vessel formation. In contrast, ion currents increased after vessel formation because of creation of ion current paths. Thus, the observed ion currents were correlated with the perfusability of the vessels, indicating that they can be used as indicators of perfusion during vessel formation in microfluidic devices. The developed methodology will be used for drug screening using organs-on-a-chip containing vascular vessels.

ACS Nano ◽  
2021 ◽  
Samuel M. Leitao ◽  
Barney Drake ◽  
Katarina Pinjusic ◽  
Xavier Pierrat ◽  
Vytautas Navikas ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (18) ◽  
pp. 9820
Viktor A. Anashkin ◽  
Anssi M. Malinen ◽  
Alexander V. Bogachev ◽  
Alexander A. Baykov

Membrane-bound inorganic pyrophosphatase (mPPase) resembles the F-ATPase in catalyzing polyphosphate-energized H+ and Na+ transport across lipid membranes, but differs structurally and mechanistically. Homodimeric mPPase likely uses a “direct coupling” mechanism, in which the proton generated from the water nucleophile at the entrance to the ion conductance channel is transported across the membrane or triggers Na+ transport. The structural aspects of this mechanism, including subunit cooperation, are still poorly understood. Using a refined enzyme assay, we examined the inhibition of K+-dependent H+-transporting mPPase from Desulfitobacterium hafniensee by three non-hydrolyzable PPi analogs (imidodiphosphate and C-substituted bisphosphonates). The kinetic data demonstrated negative cooperativity in inhibitor binding to two active sites, and reduced active site performance when the inhibitor or substrate occupied the other active site. The nonequivalence of active sites in PPi hydrolysis in terms of the Michaelis constant vanished at a low (0.1 mM) concentration of Mg2+ (essential cofactor). The replacement of K+, the second metal cofactor, by Na+ increased the substrate and inhibitor binding cooperativity. The detergent-solubilized form of mPPase exhibited similar active site nonequivalence in PPi hydrolysis. Our findings support the notion that the mPPase mechanism combines Mitchell’s direct coupling with conformational coupling to catalyze cation transport across the membrane.

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