spoken word
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 299-319
Terrin N. Tamati ◽  
David B. Pisoni ◽  
Aaron C. Moberly

Cochlear implants (CIs) represent a significant engineering and medical milestone in the treatment of hearing loss for both adults and children. In this review, we provide a brief overview of CI technology, describe the benefits that CIs can provide to adults and children who receive them, and discuss the specific limitations and issues faced by CI users. We emphasize the relevance of CIs to the linguistics community by demonstrating how CIs successfully provide access to spoken language. Furthermore, CI research can inform our basic understanding of spoken word recognition in adults and spoken language development in children. Linguistics research can also help us address the major clinical issue of outcome variability and motivate the development of new clinical tools to assess the unique challenges of adults and children with CIs, as well as novel interventions for individuals with poor outcomes.

Cristina NUALART

No faltan en las artes visuales creaciones que han integrado en su plástica el lenguaje oral, la escritura o la traducción, si bien no es tan frecuente que el lenguaje sea el sujeto de la obra. Ese es el caso de diversas obras realizadas en dos antiguas colonias del Sudeste Asiático durante la década de 1990, que ponen en cuestión la herencia cultural constituida por las palabras y los sistemas de escritura. Desde sus respectivos contextos, Vietnam y Singapur, dos artistas aportan un incisivo comentario sobre los usos politizados de la escritura, las lenguas vernáculas y la alfabetización. Piezas performativas del artista Truong Tan y de la artista Amanda Heng aportan nuevos modos de comprender el funcionamiento del lenguaje y de la violencia ejercida a través de la colonización lingüística. Abstract: There is no shortage of artworks that have integrated the spoken word, writing or translation into their aesthetic form, although it is rare for language to be the subject of the works. This is the case of several works made during the 1990s in former colonies of Southeast Asia. The works call into question the cultural heritage that words and writing systems constitute. From their respective contexts, Vietnam and Singapore, two artists offer an incisive commentary on the politicized uses of vernacular languages and literacy. Performance pieces by artists Truong Tan and Amanda Heng contribute new ways of understanding the functioning of language, and the violence that can be exerted through linguistic colonization.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ting Zou ◽  
Yutong Liu ◽  
Huiting Zhong

This study investigated the relative role of sub-syllabic components (initial consonant, rime, and tone) in spoken word recognition of Mandarin Chinese using an eye-tracking experiment with a visual world paradigm. Native Mandarin speakers (all born and grew up in Beijing) were presented with four pictures and an auditory stimulus. They were required to click the picture according to the sound stimulus they heard, and their eye movements were tracked during this process. For a target word (e.g., tang2 “candy”), nine conditions of competitors were constructed in terms of the amount of their phonological overlap with the target: consonant competitor (e.g., ti1 “ladder”), rime competitor (e.g., lang4 “wave”), tone competitor (e.g., niu2 “cow”), consonant plus rime competitor (e.g., tang1”soup”), consonant plus tone competitor (e.g., tou2 “head”), rime plus tone competitor (e.g., yang2 “sheep”), cohort competitor (e.g., ta3 “tower”), cohort plus tone competitor (e.g., tao2 “peach”), and baseline competitor (e.g., xue3 “snow”). A growth curve analysis was conducted with the fixation to competitors, targets, and distractors, and the results showed that (1) competitors with consonant or rime overlap can be adequately activated, while tone overlap plays a weaker role since additional tonal information can strengthen the competitive effect only when it was added to a candidate that already bears much phonological similarity with the target. (2) Mandarin words are processed in an incremental way in the time course of word recognition since different partially overlapping competitors could be activated immediately; (3) like the pattern found in English, both cohort and rime competitors were activated to compete for lexical activation, but these two competitors were not temporally distinctive and mainly differed in the size of their competitive effects. Generally, the gradation of activation based on the phonological similarity between target and candidates found in this study was in line with the continuous mapping models and may reflect a strategy of native speakers shaped by the informative characteristics of the interaction among different sub-syllabic components.

Hikma ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
pp. 437-441
Irene Hermosa Ramírez

The Audiovisual Translation (AVT) and Media Accessibility fields have found an ongoing interest in corpus research both for descriptive purposes (Matamala, 2008; Baños, 2013; Reviers, 2017) and for teaching purposes (Rica Peromingo, 2019; Baños, 2021). In an interdisciplinary fashion, Blanca Arias-Badia’s book Subtitling Television Series. A Corpus-Driven Study of Police Procedurals specifically takes on the task of describing the principal linguistic features of crime fiction television scripts and their corresponding Spanish subtitles. Its interdisciplinary nature lies on the combination of Television Studies, Linguistics and Translation Studies (TS). Notably, the author explores the notion of norms and patterns through the lens of these three disciplines, all by situating the source text and the target text in the spoken word to written language continuum. The book follows a clear structure of nine chapters including a theoretical and methodological contextualisation of the (quantitative and qualitative) morphosyntactic and lexical analysis of the Corpus of Police Procedurals [...]

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
pp. 111-122
Ratna Faeruz ◽  
Maila D.H. Rahiem ◽  
Nur Surayyah Madhubala Abdullah ◽  
Dzikri Rahmat Romadhon ◽  
Ratna Sari Dewi ◽  

Purpose – The purpose of this study was to explore child educational content digital folklore on YouTube, and It is used to teach young children about science, language, and values. The unit analysis on this research was the video of Pak Lebai Malang from West Sumatera, Indonesia.Design/methods/approach – The qualitative content analysis method was used in this study. The content analyzed was digital folklore based on the Minangkabau story Pak Lebai Malang. The process began with downloading the video, creating a transcript, taking notes on the text, language, and context, re-watching the video, comparing and contrasting it to the memo, and eliciting evidence from the video.Findings – The data revealed the following ways in which digital folklore on YouTube teaches science, language, and values: 1) digital technology illustrates science concepts with simple-to-understand videos; 2) by repeating the words and visualizing each spoken word, YouTube videos teach children new vocabulary. 3) the characters’ expressions and intonation in the video teach children about social values.Research implications/limitations – This research could serve as a springboard for future research on the use of digital folklores in early childhood classrooms. It is advised that additional research be conducted to improve the interest, effectiveness, and applicability of digital folklore in the early childhood learning process and design more effective programs for teaching science, language, and value to young people children. The study’s drawback is that it analyzes only one video. If it is compared to other videos, it may provide a complete view. Practical implications – This study informs educators on the potential for using digital folklore to teach science, language, and values. It entails the implementation of more creative strategies in early childhood education. Additionally, the study inspires innovative content creators on YouTube to make their videos more relevant to young children’s learning. Additionally, parents may discover that something as simple as a YouTube video could be an incredible resource for their child’s development.Originality/value – The study explains child educational content based on local wisdom. The digital form of Pak Lebai Malang folklore can facilitate accessibility and acceptability. Paper type Research paper

2021 ◽  
Kelsey Klein ◽  
Elizabeth Walker ◽  
Bob McMurray

Objective: The objective of this study was to characterize the dynamics of real-time lexical access, including lexical competition among phonologically similar words, and semantic activation in school-age children with hearing aids (HAs) and children with cochlear implants (CIs). We hypothesized that developing spoken language via degraded auditory input would lead children with HAs or CIs to adapt their approach to spoken word recognition, especially by slowing down lexical access.Design: Participants were children ages 9-12 years old with normal hearing (NH), HAs, or CIs. Participants completed a Visual World Paradigm task in which they heard a spoken word and selected the matching picture from four options. Competitor items were either phonologically similar, semantically similar, or unrelated to the target word. As the target word unfolded, children’s fixations to the target word, cohort competitor, rhyme competitor, semantically related item, and unrelated item were recorded as indices of ongoing lexical and semantic activation.Results: Children with HAs and children with CIs showed slower fixations to the target, reduced fixations to the cohort, and increased fixations to the rhyme, relative to children with NH. This wait-and-see profile was more pronounced in the children with CIs than the children with HAs. Children with HAs and children with CIs also showed delayed fixations to the semantically related item, though this delay was attributable to their delay in activating words in general, not to a distinct semantic source.Conclusions: Children with HAs and children with CIs showed qualitatively similar patterns of real-time spoken word recognition. Findings suggest that developing spoken language via degraded auditory input causes long-term cognitive adaptations to how listeners recognize spoken words, regardless of the type of hearing device used. Delayed lexical activation directly led to delayed semantic activation in children with HAs and CIs. This delay in semantic processing may impact these children’s ability to understand connected speech in everyday life.

H. Hrymashevych

The article analyzes the ways of representation of a dialect word in lexicographic editions of the end of the XX – beginning of the XXI century. First of all, the dynamics of the speech of the spoken word over the last decades is noted, because in the publications of the 70-90s of the last century dialectologists-lexicographers mostly presented the spoken word as a dialect unit with clear heuristic potential and can be a reliable source for various dialectological studies, especially in the field of phonetics, lexicology, morphology etc., because the dictionaries contained information about the variants of the dialect word (phonetic and grammatical), its grammatical parameters, semantics, localization, mostly even accurately to the settlement, sporadically presented an illustrative material that did not allow to fully represent the nominated subject, especially associated with its use in various traditions, beliefs, rituals, because there was a lack of descriptiveness. Instead, in modern dialect lexicographical publications, the way of representing the material has shifted with the emphasis on the functioning of the dialect word in a coherent text of different volume depending on the purpose of presenting the material. Modern dictionaries record not only the above parameters of the dialect word, but also its linguistic and cultural content, the valence of the represented word, its cultural understanding, which allows to trace the functioning of the colloquial name from different positions, to establish the cultural background of the nomination, to reveal emotional and aesthetic words. It is concluded that the future of Ukrainian dialect lexicography is based on dictionaries of a new type with maximum representation of the spoken word in the context of its functioning, according to dictionaries-concordances.

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