gene encoding
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Genes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 149
María Domínguez-Ruiz ◽  
Montserrat Rodríguez-Ballesteros ◽  
Marta Gandía ◽  
Elena Gómez-Rosas ◽  
Manuela Villamar ◽  

Pathogenic variants in the PJVK gene cause the DFNB59 type of autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing impairment (AR-NSHI). Phenotypes are not homogeneous, as a few subjects show auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD), while others show cochlear hearing loss. The numbers of reported cases and pathogenic variants are still small to establish accurate genotype-phenotype correlations. We investigated a cohort of 77 Spanish familial cases of AR-NSHI, in whom DFNB1 had been excluded, and a cohort of 84 simplex cases with isolated ANSD in whom OTOF variants had been excluded. All seven exons and exon-intron boundaries of the PJVK gene were sequenced. We report three novel DFNB59 cases, one from the AR-NSHI cohort and two from the ANSD cohort, with stable, severe to profound NSHI. Two of the subjects received unilateral cochlear implantation, with apparent good outcomes. Our study expands the spectrum of PJVK mutations, as we report four novel pathogenic variants: p.Leu224Arg, p.His294Ilefs*43, p.His294Asp and p.Phe317Serfs*20. We review the reported cases of DFNB59, summarize the clinical features of this rare subtype of AR-NSHI and discuss the involvement of PJVK in ANSD.

2022 ◽  
James A Sawitzke ◽  
Nina C Costantino ◽  
Ellen Hutchinson ◽  
Lynn Thomason ◽  
Donald L Court

Assembly of intact, replicating plasmids from linear DNA fragments introduced into bacterial cells, i.e. in vivo cloning, is a facile genetic engineering technology that avoids many of the problems associated with standard in vitro cloning. Here we report characterization of various parameters of in vivo linear DNA assembly mediated by either the RecET recombination system or the bacteriophage λ Red recombination system. As previously observed, RecET is superior to Red for this reaction when the terminal homology is 50 bases. Deletion of the E. coli xonA gene, encoding Exonuclease I, a 3′→5′ single-strand DNA exonuclease, substantially improves the efficiency of in vivo linear DNA assembly for both systems. Deletion of ExoI function allowed robust RecET assembly of six DNA segments to create a functional plasmid. The linear DNAs are joined accurately with very few errors. This discovery provides a significant improvement to previously reported in vivo linear DNA assembly technologies.

Shota Isogai ◽  
Akira Nishimura ◽  
Atsushi Kotaka ◽  
Naoyuki Murakami ◽  
Natsuki Hotta ◽  

A variety of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with intracellular accumulation of isoleucine (Ile) would be a promising strain for developing a distinct kind of sake, a traditional Japanese alcoholic beverage, because Ile-derived volatile compounds have a great impact on the flavor and taste of fermented foods. In this study, we isolated an Ile-accumulating mutant (strain K9-I48) derived from a diploid sake yeast of S. cerevisiae by conventional mutagenesis. Strain K9-I48 carries a novel mutation in the ILV1 gene encoding the His480Tyr variant of threonine deaminase (TD). Interestingly, the TD activity of the His480Tyr variant was markedly insensitive to feedback inhibition by Ile, but was not upregulated by valine, leading to intracellular accumulation of Ile and extracellular overproduction of 2-methyl-1-butanol, a fusel alcohol derived from Ile, in yeast cells. The present study demonstrated for the first time that the conserved histidine residue located in a linker region between two regulatory domains is involved in allosteric regulation of TD. Moreover, sake brewed with strain K9-I48 contained 2-3 times more 2-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methylbutyl acetate than sake brewed with the parent strain. These findings are valuable for the engineering of TD to increase the productivity of Ile and its derived fusel alcohols. IMPORTANCE Fruit-like flavors of isoleucine-derived volatile compounds, 2-methyl-1-butanol (2MB) and its acetate ester, contribute to a variety of the flavors and tastes of alcoholic beverages. Besides its value as aroma components in foods and cosmetics, 2MB has attracted significant attention as second-generation biofuels. Threonine deaminase (TD) catalyzes the first step in isoleucine biosynthesis and its activity is subject to feedback inhibition by isoleucine. Here, we isolated an isoleucine-accumulating sake yeast mutant and identified a mutant gene encoding a novel variant of TD. The variant TD exhibited much less sensitivity to isoleucine, leading to higher production of 2MB as well as isoleucine than the wild-type TD. Furthermore, sake brewed with a mutant yeast expressing the variant TD contained more 2MB and its acetate ester than that brewed with the parent strain. These findings will contribute to the development of superior industrial yeast strains for high-level production of isoleucine and its related fusel alcohols.

Ciaran A Shaughnessy ◽  
Sangya Yadav ◽  
Preston E Bratcher ◽  
Pamela L Zeitlin

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease caused by mutations of the gene encoding a cAMP-activated Cl- channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). CFTR modulator therapies consist of small-molecule drugs that rescue mutant CFTR. Regimens of single or combinations of CFTR modulators still rely on endogenous levels of cAMP to regulate CFTR activity. We investigated CFTR activation by the natural mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and lubiprostone and tested the hypothesis that receptor-mediated CFTR activators can be used in combination with currently available CFTR modulators to increase function of mutant CFTR. Primary cultured airway epithelia were assayed in Ussing chambers. Experimental CFTR activators and established CFTR modulators were applied for 24 h and/or acutely and analyzed for their effect on CFTR activity as measured by changes in short-circuit current (ISC). In non-CF airway epithelia, acute application of lubiprostone and PGE2 activated CFTR to levels comparable to forskolin. Pre-treatment (24 h) with antagonists to prostaglandin receptors EP2 and EP4 abolished the ability of lubiprostone to acutely activate CFTR. In F508del homozygous airway epithelia pre-treated with the triple combination of elexacaftor, tezacaftor, and ivacaftor (ELEXA/TEZ/IVA; i.e., Trikafta), acute application of lubiprostone was able to maximally activate CFTR. Prolonged (24 h) co-treatment of F508del homozygous epithelia with ELEXA/TEZ/IVA and lubiprostone increased acute CFTR activation by ~60% compared to treatment with ELEXA/TEZ/IVA alone. This work establishes the feasibility of targeting prostaglandin receptors to activate CFTR on the airway epithelia and demonstrates that co-treatment with lubiprostone can further restore modulator-rescued CFTR.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 772
Rosaura Rodicio ◽  
Hans-Peter Schmitz ◽  
Jürgen J. Heinisch

The milk yeast Kluyveromyces lactis degrades glucose through glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway and follows a mainly respiratory metabolism. Here, we investigated the role of two reactions which are required for the final steps of glucose degradation from both pathways, as well as for gluconeogenesis, namely fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). In silico analyses identified one gene encoding the former (KlFBA1), and three genes encoding isoforms of the latter (KlTDH1, KlTDH2, KlGDP1). Phenotypic analyses were performed by deleting the genes from the haploid K. lactis genome. While Klfba1 deletions lacked detectable FBA activity, they still grew poorly on glucose. To investigate the in vivo importance of the GAPDH isoforms, different mutant combinations were analyzed for their growth behavior and enzymatic activity. KlTdh2 represented the major glycolytic GAPDH isoform, as its lack caused a slower growth on glucose. Cells lacking both KlTdh1 and KlTdh2 failed to grow on glucose but were still able to use ethanol as sole carbon sources, indicating that KlGdp1 is sufficient to promote gluconeogenesis. Life-cell fluorescence microscopy revealed that KlTdh2 accumulated in the nucleus upon exposure to oxidative stress, suggesting a moonlighting function of this isoform in the regulation of gene expression. Heterologous complementation of the Klfba1 deletion by the human ALDOA gene renders K. lactis a promising host for heterologous expression of human disease alleles and/or a screening system for specific drugs.

2022 ◽  
Anupriya Aggarwal ◽  
Alberto Stella ◽  
Gregory Walker ◽  
Anouschka Akerman ◽  
Vanessa Milogiannakis ◽  

Abstract Genetically distinct viral variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been recorded since January 2020. Over this time global vaccine programs have been introduced, contributing to lowered COVID-19 hospitalisation and mortality rates, particularly in the first world. In late 2021, the Omicron (B.1.1.529) virus variant emerged, with significant genetic differences and clinical effects from other variants of concern (VOC). This variant a demonstrated higher number of polymorphisms in the gene encoding the Spike (S) protein, and there has been displacement of the dominant Delta variant. We assessed the impact of Omicron infection on the ability of: serum from vaccinated and/or previously infected individuals; concentrated human IgG from plasma donors, and licensed monoclonal antibody therapies to neutralise the virus in vitro. There was a 17 to 27-fold reduction in neutralisation titres across all donors who had a detectable neutralising antibody titre to the Omicron variant. Concentrated pooled human IgG from convalescent and vaccinated donors had greater breadth of neutralisation, although the potency was still reduced 16-fold. Of all therapeutic antibodies tested, significant neutralisation of the Omicron variant was only observed for Sotrovimab, with other monoclonal antibodies unable to neutralise Omicron in vitro. These results have implications for ongoing therapy of individuals infected with the Omicron variant.

2022 ◽  
Ashkan Golshani ◽  
Sasi Kumar Jagadeesan ◽  
Mustafa Algafari ◽  
Maryam Hajikarimlou ◽  
Sarah Takallou ◽  

Abstract Lithium chloride (LiCl) is a widely used and extensively researched drug for the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). As a result, LiCl has been the subject of research studying its toxicity, mode of action, and downstream cellular responses. LiCl has been shown to influence cell signalling and signalling transduction pathways through protein kinase C and glycogen synthase kinase-3 in mammalian cells. LiCl's significant downstream effects on the translational pathway necessitate further investigation. In yeast, LiCl is found to lower the activity and alter the expression of PGM2, a gene encoding a sugar-metabolism phosphoglucomutase. When phosphoglucomutase activity is reduced in the presence of galactose, intermediates of galactose metabolism aggregate, causing cell sensitivity to LiCl. In this study, we identified that deleting the genes PEX11 and RIM20 increases yeast LiCl sensitivity. We further show that PEX11 and RIM20 regulate the expression of PGM2 mRNA at the translation level. The observed alteration of translation seems to target the structured 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR) of the PGM2 mRNA.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Eric Seronick ◽  
Jae Son ◽  
Cameron Michael ◽  
Hannah Fogg ◽  
Zeynep Gromley ◽  

Abstract Objective In addition to its function as the microtubule organizing center of the cell, the centrosome has functions in many other cellular processes including primary cilia formation, DNA damage checkpoints, and cell cycle progression. But the role of individual components of the centrosome in these processes remains unclear. Previous studies used siRNA (small interfering RNA) to “knock down” protein levels of the centrosome component centriolin, resulting in failed cytokinesis. Since this approach was transient, only targeting centriolin at the mRNA level, we sought to confirm these findings by permanently disrupting the gene encoding centriolin using the CRISPR/Cas9 system of genome editing. Results This study provides evidence that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is capable of effectively reducing centriolin protein levels in the cell. Furthermore, this disruption leads to a failure of cytokinesis that is reminiscent of the phenotype previously reported for the siRNA-mediated disruption of centriolin. Furthermore, no additional defects in cell division were observed, consistent with results seen with previous siRNA studies. We conclude that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is an effective means of permanently removing the cellular pools of centriolin and that the disruption of centriolin at both the mRNA level and genomic level lead to similar cell division defects.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 698
Mi-Jin Choi ◽  
Yeo Reum Kim ◽  
Nam Gyu Park ◽  
Cheorl-Ho Kim ◽  
Young Dae Oh ◽  

Genes that influence the growth of Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) may improve the productivity of the aquaculture industry. Previous research demonstrated that the differential expression of a gene encoding a C-type lectin domain-containing protein (CTLD) was associated with a faster growth in Pacific abalone. We analyzed this gene and identified an open reading frame that consisted of 145 amino acids. The sequence showed a significant homology to other genes that encode CTLDs in the genus Haliotis. Expression profiling analysis at different developmental stages and from various tissues showed that the gene was first expressed at approximately 50 days after fertilization (shell length of 2.47 ± 0.13 mm). In adult Pacific abalone, the gene was strongly expressed in the epipodium, gill, and mantle. Recombinant Pacific abalone CTLD purified from Escherichia coli exhibited antimicrobial activity against several Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus iniae, and Lactococcus garvieae) and Gram-negative bacteria (Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio harveyi). We also performed bacterial agglutination assays in the presence of Ca2+, as well as bacterial binding assays in the presence of the detergent dodecyl maltoside. Incubation with E. coli and B. subtilis cells suggested that the CTLD stimulated Ca2+-dependent bacterial agglutination. Our results suggest that this novel Pacific abalone CTLD is important for the pathogen recognition in the gastropod host defense mechanism.

2022 ◽  
Vol 204 (2) ◽  
Szymon Walter de Walthoffen

Abstract Purpose Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an etiological agent of gonorrhea which remains a major public health problem the mechanisms that determine resistance to drugs of the beta-lactam class, which are recommended for the treatment of gonorrhea, are currently the most important problem in its treatment. Chromosomal mutations are responsible for resistance to ceftriaxone and cefepime. The possibility of mutations in the gene encoding beta-lactamase (blaTEM) in the penicillinase plasmid may also turn out to be a serious threat. Methods The occurrence of resistance encoded on penicillinase plasmid has been investigated. For this purpose, the susceptibility of bacteria was determined and the gene for resistance to beta-lactams as well as the plasmids themselves was typed. Results Of the 333 strains tested, 21 (6.3%) had the beta-lactamase gene and produced penicillinase. Two of the beta-lactamase: TEM-1 and TEM-135 occurred among the tested strains of N. gonorrhoeae. Most of the known penicillinase plasmid types of N. gonorrhoeae were demonstrated: the Asian, the African, the Toronto/Rio plasmids and Australian variants. Conclusions In the first 3 years, TEM-1 beta-lactamases dominated in N. gonorrhoeae, which were replaced by TEM-135 in the following years of the study. Not all molecular methods are capable of varying the types of penicillinase plasmids. A particularly noteworthy observation is the fact that the Australia-type of penicillinase plasmid (3270 bp) was identified for the first time in Europe, and the second time in the world.

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