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2022 ◽  
Vol 75 ◽  
pp. 102471
Rafael Navarro ◽  
Javier Martínez-Martínez ◽  
Jorge Fernández Suárez ◽  
Enrique Álvarez-Areces ◽  
Jose Manuel Baltuille

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Islam Elgammal ◽  
Ghada Talat Alhothali ◽  
Annarita Sorrentino

Purpose Umrah is a religious ritual that takes place inside the Holy Mosque in Makkah. Umrah can be performed any time during the year; however, performing Umrah in the month of Ramadan is much rewarded. Although the kingdom of Saudi Arabia is hosting this event each year, studies that focus on exploring the Holy Mosque visitor segments are scarce. This study aims to explore and describe the marketing segments of Umrah performers relative to their Umrah experience inside the Holy Mosque of Makkah. Most specifically, this study aims to explore segments of Umrah performers based on their perception of servicescape, hedonic and convenience value and the visitors’ outcome behaviors [i.e. intention to revisit and positive word of mouth (PWOM)]. Design/methodology/approach Mixed-method techniques of data collection [i.e. self-administered questionnaires (n = 278) and short discussions (n = 10)] were used. Findings Cluster analysis is used for data analysis. The findings revealed four clusters of Umrah performers: real, occasional, rational and passionate performers. Research limitations/implications This study is a first attempt to target pilgrims based on their experience with the servicescape during the organized religious event; despite its exploratory nature, it reveals interesting insights that will be useful for managers and scholars. Although the study helps to enrich the existing knowledge on visitors’ experience and proposes some implications for practitioners, it does have some limitations. First, convenience sampling was used, and hence the findings cannot be generalized. Second, the limited period of observation did not allow the authors to provide a complete picture of the pilgrims’ behavior; for this reason, the study findings partially describe the phenomenon. Another limitation is related to the difficulty of approaching respondents from Asia or South East Asia although they constitute a significant percentage of the total Umrah performers every year; this is because of the language barrier as data was collected from only English and Arabic speakers. Hence, to overcome these limitations, it is suggested that future studies could be expanded to target Asian respondents and perhaps other nationalities; and could be undertaken in other religious contexts. Moreover, an interesting future study could be carried out to compare the same model during other religious events. Added to that, another growing area of research could be approached by researchers, such as the impact of pilgrims sharing their experiences on influencing E-PWOM. Practical implications The findings reveal several implications for policymakers and stakeholders. The segmentation of Umrah performers assists destination managers, policymakers and local firms involved in managing this mass event to identify effective marketing decision-makers, business strategies and policymakers to satisfy the needs of these visitors (Disegna et al., 2011). Particularly, the identification of the key characteristics of these visitors can help destination marketers to develop a marketing mix that suits the needs of each cluster (Smith et al., 2014). Despite that the performers’ main motivation is the religious purpose, marketing strategists can attract the attention of these visitors to visit other religious, cultural and heritage sites in the country. Social implications Encouraging the visit to other tourist spots in Saudi has several impacts on nourishing the economy and the community. Tourism in Saudi could encourage entrepreneurs to start new ventures to satisfy the need of visitors to the country. Small-medium enterprises could benefit from tourism as they could target market niches in which leader companies are not serving. For instance, hand-made souvenirs are one of these industries that could grow to satisfy the need of visitors. Originality/value The results contribute to the literature of event segmentation by identifying visitors’ profiles to rarely investigated destinations. The findings reveal several implications for policymakers and stakeholders.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Esmeralda Crespo-Almendros ◽  
M. Belén Prados-Peña ◽  
Lucia Porcu ◽  
Juan Miguel Alcántara-Pilar

Purpose This study seeks to analyze the influence of the consumer's perceived benefits deriving from two different promotional incentives offered via social media on the perceived quality of the heritage complex.Design/methodology/approach A quasi-experimental study was carried out among online users, implementing two different promotional stimuli. Facebook was selected as the social network through which the promotional incentives were offered in the experiment. The sample was obtained via a panel of Internet users provided by Sondea Internet SL.Findings The results showed that the benefits perceived by the tourists will depend on the sales promotion type offered. On the one hand, free VIP pass was found to be mostly related to hedonic benefits that positively affect perceived quality. On the other hand, 2 × 1 offer would be perceived as a utilitarian benefit and is likely to exert a fairly negative effect on perceived quality.Practical implications Tourism managers and practitioners are encouraged to analyze the characteristics of certain types of sales promotions, as each promotional incentive bears different values and associated benefits. The findings of this study suggest managers and practitioners to implement non-monetary promotions to enhance brand equity and perceived quality. Thus, it is paramount for the managers of cultural institutions and heritage sites to trust in sales promotions which can be very helpful if they are designed carefully.Originality/value This study pioneers the analysis of the impact of the benefits associated with different typologies of sales promotions on social networks on the perceived quality of a heritage site.

Electronics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 195
Nikolaos Partarakis ◽  
Xenophon Zabulis ◽  
Nikolaos Patsiouras ◽  
Antonios Chatjiantoniou ◽  
Emmanouil Zidianakis ◽  

An approach to the representation and presentation of spatial and geographical context of cultural heritage sites is proposed. The goal is to combine semantic representations of social and historical context with 3D representations of cultural heritage sites acquired through 3D reconstruction and 3D modeling technologies, to support their interpretation and presentation in education and tourism. Several use cases support and demonstrate the application of the proposed approach including immersive craft and context demonstration environment and interactive games.

Land ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 97
Bas Verschuuren ◽  
Alison Ormsby ◽  
Wendy Jackson

This study provides an overview of how sacred natural sites are given recognition within the World Heritage system. It offers an analysis of the extent to which sacred natural sites that are part of nine World Heritage sites are recognised in site nomination files, management plans, and governance of these sites. The World Heritage sites are located across all continents except for Antarctica. We analysed sites in Australia, Greece, Guatemala, India, Japan, Kenya, Malaysia, New Zealand and the Russian Federation. We found that the cultural and spiritual significance of sacred natural sites is under-recognised, especially in natural World Heritage sites. In addition, Indigenous and religious custodians are frequently excluded from site management and governance. We make four recommendations for improving the recognition of sacred natural sites and the involvement of their custodians in the World Heritage process and in site nomination, governance, and management: (1) identification and recognition of sacred natural sites including their associated cultural and spiritual values; (2) recognition of, and articulated roles for custodians of sacred natural sites in the governance and management of World Heritage sites; (3) increased uptake of religious groups and Indigenous Peoples’ conservation approaches to the joint management of World Heritage sites that contain sacred natural sites, and (4) prevention of exclusion of custodians and ecological migration by applying inclusive conservation practices through rights-based approaches.

Eos ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 103 ◽  
Humberto Basilio

A new lidar project reveals how mining and urban expansion have put one of Mexico’s most iconic cultural heritage sites at risk.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 565
Zhenfeng Cheng ◽  
Xin Chen

With the rapid development of tourism and the explosive growth of tourist arrivals, the destructive effects of tourist activities on the ecological environment of tourist destinations are becoming increasingly severe, seriously restricting the sustainable development of these destinations. As one of the most important types of current tourist destinations, cultural heritage sites are in urgent need of a well-protected ecological environment. Environmental protection has already become an important task for their sustainable development. The behavior of tourists during visits, which plays a central role in tourist activities, has gradually become a key factor affecting the environment of tourist destinations. Therefore, approaches to effectively identify the mechanisms underpinning tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior have become a focus of both theoretical and practical domains. Based on a stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) theoretical framework, our study established a mediation model based on cultural attachments, and explored the mechanisms affecting how cognitive, emotional, and cultural experiences influence tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior. The experience-attachment-behavior transmission mechanism was also considered. A structural equation model was applied to empirically test the 588 pieces of data collected from tourists involved in heritage tourism. The test results show that the cognitive, emotional, and cultural experiences delivered from tourist destinations of cultural heritage, positively affected tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior. Cultural attachment plays a partially mediating role between cognitive, emotional, cultural experiences and tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior. These study results not only support theoretical research on the relationship between tourism experiences and tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior, but also indicate the effective driving pathways of tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior at the practical level. As such, this research provides both theoretical reference and practical guidance for the sustainable development of tourist destinations with diverse cultural heritages.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Selena Aureli ◽  
Mara Del Baldo

PurposeThe paper aims to investigate the approach and tools adopted by an Italian city, included amongst the UNESCO World Heritage sites (WHS), to involve different stakeholders in the protection and valorisation of its historical centre to achieve the goals of sustainable development. The paper focusses on the role of local authorities as the key actors that should engage different city users to jointly achieve heritage conservation and socio-economic development.Design/methodology/approachData were collected, thanks to the researchers' direct participation in a project launched by the municipality of Urbino, which involved several local stakeholders and lasted about a year. Participant observation allowed the authors to collect informal interviews, join collective discussions and reflect on the direct observation of the activities undertaken.FindingsThe case study analysed suggests how participatory governance may be effective in fostering responsible principles in “asset usage” by any type of city users and how citizens actively co-design and co-implement initiatives of heritage revitalisation when engaged in cultural heritage (CH) policies.Originality/valueThe paper addresses a long-standing problem that has never been solved: how to enhance the consciousness of the CH amongst stakeholders and reconcile their different and conflicting needs in the historical urban environment in the process of revitalisation.

2022 ◽  
Onur Selçuk ◽  
Hatice KARAKAS ◽  
Beykan CIZEL ◽  
Emre Ipekci Cetin

Abstract The tourism is an industry that makes extensive use of natural heritage sites. It has long been debated whether tourism is a threat to natural heritage sites. This research has been written to contribute to these discussions. In the study, the author(s) aims to determine the effects and threat levels of tourism in World Natural Heritage Sites. Within the scope of the research, the impact of tourism on 24 samples selected from UNESCO natural heritage sites was examined with multi-criteria decision-making methods. According to the results of the research, the highest endangerment level among the selected NHS are "Lake Malawi National Park", "Machu Picchu Historic Sanctuary" and "Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park", while "Atlantic Forest Southeast Reserves", "Sinharaja Forest Conservation Area" and "Vredefort Dome" were found to be the least affected sites. The research results were discussed with the implications developed in accordance with the contexts of the selected NHS.

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