inductively coupled
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2022 ◽  
Allison R. Severson ◽  
Yvette D. Kuiper ◽  
G. Nelson Eby ◽  
Hao-Yang Lee ◽  
J. Christopher Hepburn

ABSTRACT West Avalonia is a composite terrane that rifted from the supercontinent Gondwana in the Ordovician and accreted to Laurentia during the latest Silurian to Devonian Acadian orogeny. The nature and extent of West Avalonia are well constrained in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Newfoundland, Canada, by U-Pb detrital zircon data and/ or isotope geochemistry of (meta)sedimentary and igneous rocks. The southeastern New England Avalon terrane in eastern Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island has generally been interpreted as an along-strike continuance of West Avalonia in Canada, but the ages and origins of metasedimentary units along the western boundary of the Avalon terrane in Massachusetts and Connecticut remain poorly constrained. In this study, new detrital zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf laser-ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) data from three samples of metasedimentary units along the western boundary of the southeastern New England Avalon terrane in Connecticut and Massachusetts were compared with existing data to test whether these metasedimentary units can be correlated along strike. The data were also compared with existing detrital zircon U-Pb and εHf data in New England and Canada in order to constrain the extent and provenance of West Avalonia. The maximum depositional age of two of the three detrital zircon samples analyzed in this study, based on the youngest single grain in each sample (600 ± 28 Ma, n = 1; 617 ± 28 Ma, n = 1) and consistency with existing analyses elsewhere in the southeastern New England Avalon terrane, is Ediacaran, while that of the third sample is Tonian (959 ± 40 Ma, n = 4). Detrital zircon analyses of all three samples from this study showed similar substantial Mesoproterozoic and lesser Paleoproterozoic and Archean populations. Other existing detrital zircon U-Pb data from quartzites in the southeastern New England Avalon terrane show similar Tonian populations with or without Ediacaran grains or populations. Most published detrital zircon U-Pb data from (meta)sedimentary rocks in West Avalonia in Canada yielded Ediacaran youngest detrital zircon age populations, except for a quartzite unit within the Gamble Brook Formation in the Cobequid Highlands of Nova Scotia, which showed a Tonian maximum depositional age, and otherwise a nearly identical detrital zircon signature with rocks from the southeastern New England Avalon terrane. All samples compiled from the southeastern New England Avalon terrane and West Avalonia in Canada show main age populations between ca. 2.0 Ga and ca. 1.0 Ga, with major peaks at ca. 1.95, ca. 1.50, ca. 1.20, and ca. 1.00 Ga, and minor ca. 3.1–3.0 Ga and ca. 2.8–2.6 Ga populations. The εHf(t) values from the three samples yielded similar results to those from West Avalonia in Canada, suggesting that both regions were derived from the same cratonic sources. The εHf(t) values of all West Avalonian samples overlap with both Amazonia and Baltica, suggesting that there is a mixed signature between cratonic sources, possibly as a result of previous collision and transfer of basement fragments between these cratons during the formation of supercontinent Rodinia, or during subsequent arc collisions.

2022 ◽  
Suzanne Craddock Affinati ◽  
Thomas D. Hoisch ◽  
Michael L. Wells ◽  
Samuel Wright

ABSTRACT In this study, we determined the timing of burial and subsequent exhumation of Barrovian metamorphic rocks from the Chloride Cliff area of the Funeral Mountains in southeastern California by constraining the ages of different portions of a pressure-temperature (P-T) path. Using a split-stream laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) system, we analyzed 192 domains from 35 grains of monazite within five samples with a spot size of 8 µm to determine U-Pb ages and trace-element abundances from the same samples (same polished sections) that were analyzed to produce the P-T paths. Changes that took place within individual monazite grains reflect localized equilibrium and captured the changes in heavy rare earth element (HREE) abundances in the matrix reservoir that occurred as garnet grew, resorbed, and then regrew, thus constraining ages on different portions of the P-T path. The results show that garnet began growing ca. 168 Ma, began resorbing ca. 160 Ma, began retrograde regrowth ca. 157 Ma, and continued to regrow at least through ca. 143 Ma. The early garnet growth corresponds to a period of pressure increase along the P-T path. The subsequent partial resorption corresponds to the prograde crossing of a garnet-consuming reaction during decompression, and the retrograde garnet regrowth occurred when this same reaction was recrossed in the retrograde sense during further decompression. These results are consistent with previously determined ages, which include a Lu-Hf garnet age of 167.3 ± 0.72 Ma for the early pressure-increase portion of the P-T path, and 40Ar/39Ar muscovite cooling ages of 153 and 146 Ma in the lower-grade Indian Pass area 10 km southeast of Chloride Cliff. The 40Ar/39Ar muscovite ages document cooling at the same time as retrograde garnet regrowth was taking place at Chloride Cliff. The oldest monazite age obtained in this study, 176 ± 5 Ma, suggests that southeast-directed thrusting within the Jurassic retroarc was ongoing by this time along the California portion of the western North American plate margin, as a consequence of east-dipping subduction and/or arc collision. The Funeral Mountains were likely located on the east side of the northern Sierra Nevada range in the Jurassic, taking into account dextral strike-slip displacement along the Cretaceous Mojave–Snow Lake fault. The Late Jurassic timing of burial in the Funeral Mountains and its Jurassic location suggest burial was associated with the East Sierran thrust system. The timing of prograde garnet resorption during exhumation (160–157 Ma) corresponds to a change from regional dextral transpression to sinistral transtension along the Jurassic plate margin inferred to have occurred ca. 157 Ma. The recorded exhumation was concurrent with intrusion of the 148 Ma Independence dike swarm in the eastern Sierra Nevada and Mojave regions, which developed within a regime of northeast-southwest extension.

Kamila Pokorska-Niewiada ◽  
Agnieszka Brodowska ◽  
Jacek Brodowski ◽  
Małgorzata Szczuko

Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most commonly recognized endocrinopathies in women. The literature lacks clear data that allow any meaningful conclusions to be drawn about the influence of trace elements in erythrocytes on the biochemical parameters of PCOS. Materials and methods: This study was conducted among 47 women meeting the Rotterdam criteria for the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome. The research groups included women with PCOS with different BMI values (body mass index): obese women with PCOS (PCOS with BMI ≥ 30, mean BMI index 35.4 ± 4.4 kg/m2), nonobese PCOS women (PCOS with BMI < 30, mean BMI index 25.2 ± 2.8 kg/m2), and healthy control group (CG) with a mean BMI of 23.57 ± 0.9 kg/m2. The contents of trace elements in erythrocytes were determined with an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer. Results: The only trace element showing significant differences in concentration between the studied groups was nickel (Ni). The level of nickel in the obese women with PCOS (BMI ≥ 30) was significantly higher than in nonobese women (BMI < 30). The content of other trace elements in erythrocytes did not differ significantly between the studied groups. Several significant correlations were found within each of the studied PCOS groups: in the group of obese women, the content of zinc (Zn) in erythrocytes positively correlated with prolactin, the content of magnesium (Mg) positively correlated with testosterone, and the content of manganese (Mn) negatively correlated with thyroid-stimulating hormone. In the group of nonobese women, Zn content correlated positively with testosterone, Ni with luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol, and Mg negatively correlated with estradiol. Conclusions: The relationship between the level of trace elements and the level of hormones suggests that, in obese women with PCOS, nickel may play a role in inhibiting the processes of folliculogenesis and ovulation. Research on trace elements and their relationship to ovulatory cycles and the development of PCOS may contribute to reducing the consequences of PCOS and, therefore, should be extended.

M. Nowak ◽  
A. Tolińska ◽  
L. Marciniak ◽  
M. Skrobańska ◽  
B. Tylkowski ◽  

AbstractThis study aimed to assess the characteristics, including morphology, physicochemical properties, and antibacterial properties, of silver nanocolloids obtained by D-glucose reduction. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized in accordance with the principles of green chemistry using D-glucose as a reductor. The obtained nanostructures were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering. Stability tests performed after 1 month of storage revealed that the colloids prepared with and without polyvinylpyrrolidone as a stabilizer had the same properties. Distribution of the nanoparticles was tested using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry by doping the silver colloids into a natural soap mass. The antibacterial activity of the soap containing silver nanoparticles was tested on dirty hands. The antibacterial activity test demonstrated that the novel green soap materials improved with D-glucose-reduced silver nanoparticles possessed better antibacterial properties than a pure soap, and thus, they could be recommended for quotidian use by dermatological patients.

2022 ◽  
Iyobosa Timothy Asowata ◽  
A.L. Adisa

Abstract Trace elements (TE) concentrations of subsoil and the underlying parent rocks of Labunwa – Odele area were determined in other to ascertain the enrichment level, distribution and sources of these TEs in the subsoil in the study area. Twenty-one (21) subsoil (at depth of 30 -100 cm) and thirteen (13) rock samples were collected, pulverised and digested using aqua regia for soil samples and near total digestion of HClO4, HF, HCl and HNO3of different proportions for the rocks. The samples were analysed using Inductively Coupled Plasma- Mass Spectrometry, (ICP-MS). The mean TE concentrations in ppm for subsoil showed Cu (40.0), Pb, (24.2), Zn (56.3), As (0.9) and U (2.7) among other elements as against the mean concentrations of granite gneiss (GGN) with Cu (22.9), Pb (61.4), Zn (64.6), As (1.0), U (2.6) and Pegmatite, (PGM) Cu(128.4), Pb(17.0), Zn(108.8), As (1.1), U (1.3) among other TEs. The relatively low concentrations of the TEs in the subsoil compared to the underlying parent rocks suggests that TEs in the subsoil may have been influenced by geogenic factors, such as weathering of the underlying rocks. TEs source apportionments in the subsoil using Bivariant plots, correlation coefficient, Bi-polar and dendogram analyses showed that these TEs are essentially from the underlying GGN and PGM in the area. Pollution status indices, I-geo, Contamination factor and PLI showed that the study area is practically unpolluted. This suggests that locations with relatively higher concentrations of some TEs are probably due to mineralisation and since most of the subsoil TEs are significantly lower in concentrations compared to the underlying bedrock, the area is safe for agricultural activities.

Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 246
Alenka Vesel ◽  
Rok Zaplotnik ◽  
Gregor Primc ◽  
Domen Paul ◽  
Miran Mozetič

Carbon nanowalls are promising materials for various electrochemical devices due to their chemical inertness, desirable electrical conductivity, and excellent surface-to-mass ratio. Standard techniques, often based on plasma-assisted deposition using gaseous precursors, enable the synthesis of top-quality carbon nanowalls, but require long deposition times which represents a serious obstacle for mass applications. Here, an alternative deposition technique is presented. The carbon nanowalls were synthesized on titanium substrates using various polymers as solid precursors. A solid precursor and the substrate were mounted into a low-pressure plasma reactor. Plasma was sustained by an inductively coupled radiofrequency discharge in the H-mode at the power of 500 W. Spontaneous growth of carbon nanomaterials was observed for a variety of polymer precursors. The best quality of carbon nanowalls was obtained using aliphatic polyolefins. The highest growth rate of a thin film of carbon nanowalls of about 200 nm/s was observed. The results were explained by different degradation mechanisms of polymers upon plasma treatment and the surface kinetics.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Ke Fu ◽  
Yinglian Song ◽  
Dewei Zhang ◽  
Min Xu ◽  
Ruixia Wu ◽  

Qishiwei Zhenzhu pills (QSW) was first recorded in the Tibetan medicine classic Si Bu Yi Dian and has been used to treat “Baimai” disease, stroke, paralysis, hemiplegia, cerebral hemorrhage, and other diseases till today. This prescription contains more than 70 medicines including myrobalan, pearl, agate, opal, bezoar, coral, musk, gold, silver, and a mineral mixture Zuotai. As a result, QSW contains a large amount of mercury, copper, lead, and other trace elements. The aim of this study was to determine the 18 trace elements (lithium, beryllium, scandium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, arsenic, strontium, argentum, cadmium, cesium, barium, lead, aurum, and mercury) in 10 batches of QSW produced by 5 pharmaceutical companies (Ganlu Tibetan Medicine Co., Ltd. has 6 different batches) by direct inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). ICP-MS is a rapid, sensitive, accurate methodology allowing the determination of 18 elements simultaneously. The results showed that each element had an excellent linear relationship in the corresponding mass concentration range. The results showed that the rank order of the elements in QSW was copper > mercury > lead from high to low, with the mass fraction higher than 6000 μg/kg; the mass fractions of argentum, arsenic, manganese, aurum, strontium, barium, chromium, and nickel were in the range of 33–1034 μg/kg; and the mass fractions of vanadium, cobalt, lithium, beryllium, cadmium, scandium, and cesium were lower than 10 μg/kg. The reproducibility from the same manufacturer (Tibet Ganlu Tibetan Medicine Co., Ltd.) was relatively high; however, the element amounts among 5 manufacturers were different, which could affect the efficacy and toxicity of QSW. All in all, ICP-MS can be used as an effective tool for the analysis of trace elements in QSW and standard quality control needs to be enforced across different manufactures.

Catalysts ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 81
José Castanheiro

Glycerol acetalization with citral was studied using a heteropolyacid (tungstophosphoric acid) supported on KIT-6, as a catalyst, at 100 °C. Different catalysts were synthesized. Catalysts were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductively coupled plasma (ICP), X-ray diffraction (XRD), attenuated total refletion-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and potentiometric titrations. At a fixed time, the glycerol conversion increased with the H3PW12O40 (PW) on KIT-6. PW4-KIT-6 material had a higher conversion than other catalysts. The optimization of glycerol’s acetalization with citral was studied under the PW4-KIT-6 catalyst. After 5 h, it was found that, at T = 100 °C, with m = 0.3 g of solid, molar glycerol:citral = 1:2.25, the conversion of glycerol was 89%. Moreover, the PW4-KTI-6 catalyst showed good catalytic stability.

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