population movements
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2022 ◽  
pp. 1-50
Author(s):  
Emre Amasyalı

Abstract A significant literature demonstrates that the presence of historic missionary societies—especially Protestant societies—during the colonial period is significantly and positively associated with increased educational attainment and economic outcomes. However, we know less about the mechanisms underlying the long-run consequences of institutions, as it is commonly very hard to disentangle direct effects from indirect effects. One clear way to do so, however, is to explore the long-term impact of missionary influence in places in which the direct beneficiaries of missionary education are no longer present. The present article considers one such region, the Anatolian region of the Ottoman Empire. Due to the ethnic violence and population movements at the start of the twentieth century, the newfound Turkish nation-state was largely religiously homogenous. This provides us with a unique situation to empirically assess the long-run indirect effects of Christian missionary societies on local human capital. For this purpose, I present an original dataset that provides the locations of Protestant mission stations and schools, Ottoman state-run schools, and Armenian community schools contained within Ottoman Anatolia between 1820 and 1914. Contrary to the common association found in the literature, this study does not find missionary presence to be correlated with modern-day schooling. Rather, I find that regions with a heightened missionary presence and an active Christian educational market perform better on the gender parity index for pretertiary schooling during both the Ottoman and Turkish periods.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Lili Li ◽  
Pascal Milesi ◽  
Mathieu Tiret ◽  
Jun Chen ◽  
Janek Sendrowski ◽  
...  

Vast population movements induced by recurrent climatic cycles have shaped the genetic structure of plant species. This is especially true in Scandinavia that was repeatedly glaciated. During glacial periods trees were confined to refugia, south and east of the ice sheet, from which they recolonized Scandinavia as the ice melted away. This multi-pronged recolonization led to large contact zones in most species. We leverage large genomic data from 5000 trees to reconstruct the demographic history of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and test for the presence of natural selection during the recolonization process and the establishment of the contact zone. Sweden is today made up of two large genetic clusters, a southern one originating from the Baltics and a Northern one originating from Northern Russia. The contact zone delineating these two clusters closely matches the limit between two major climatic regions. This suggests that natural selection contributed to the establishment and the maintenance of the contact zone. To test this hypothesis we first used Approximate Bayesian Computation; an Isolation-with migration model with genomewide linked selection fits the data better than a purely neutral one. Secondly, we identified loci characterized by both extreme allele frequency differences between geographic regions and association to the variables defining the climatic zones. These loci, many of which are related to phenology, form clusters present on all linkage groups. Altogether, the current genetic structure reflects the joint effect of climatic cycles, recolonization and selection on the establishment of strong local adaptation and con-tact zones.


2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 1631-1637
Author(s):  
Rapholo Selelo Frank

This study sought to explore and describe the lived experiences of migrant youths in South Africa by using Musina as a case study. Several studies reveal that Southern Africa is faced with an increased number of international population movements. Upon their arrival in the host countries, immigrants encounter a vast number of challenges. The new economic theory of migration was used to pursue the aim of this study. This study was qualitative wherein case study and phenomenological designs were triangulated to purposively select 18 migrant youths in Musina. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and was analysed thematically with the assistance of Nvivo software. Findings reveal that most migrant youths due to problems around documentation are being hated by local citizens and exploited by employers that they end up performing impractical jobs without any benefits and job security. Stigmatisation was also found to be a challenge that migrant youths deal with in South Africa. There should be stringent security at the Beit-Bridge border post to mitigate illegal cross-bordering to South Africa. Integrative programmes should be developed to accommodate legal immigrants into the welfare of South Africa. Immigration laws should have a clause on the monitoring of any job done by immigrants in the host countries. Further research is also recommended in other provinces of South Africa and with significant others such as local citizens and government officials.


2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (3) ◽  
pp. 107-129
Author(s):  
Francesca Rolandi

In the years after the Second World War, the city of Rijeka found itself caught in the middle of various migratory trajectories. The departure of locals who self-identified as Italians and opted for Italian citizenship occurred simultaneously with other population movements that drained the city of inhabitants and brought in newcomers. Many locals defected and traveled to Italy, which was either their final destination or a country they transited through before being resettled elsewhere. Furthermore, after the war ended, workers from other Yugoslav areas started arriving in the city. A flourishing economy proved capable of attracting migrants with promises of good living standards; however, political reasons also motivated many to move to this Adriatic city. The latter was the case for former economic emigrants who decided to return to join the new socialist homeland and for Italian workers who symbolically sided with the socialist Yugoslavia. Rijeka was not simply a destination for many migrants—it was also a springboard for individuals from all over the Yugoslav Federation to reach the Western Bloc. This article argues that examining these intertwining patterns together rather than separately offers new insight into the challenges the city experienced during its postwar transition.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Praachi Das ◽  
Morganne Igoe ◽  
Suzanne Lenhart ◽  
Lan Luong ◽  
Cristina Lanzas ◽  
...  

Background: Evidence suggests that the risk of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) varies geographically due to differences in population characteristics. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify: (a) geographic disparities of COVID-19 risk in the Greater St. Louis area of Missouri, USA; (b) predictors of the identified disparities. Methods: Data on COVID-19 incidence and chronic disease hospitalizations were obtained from the Departments of Health and Missouri Hospital Association, respectively. Socioeconomic and demographic data were obtained from the 2018 American Community Survey while population mobility data were obtained from the SafeGraph website. Choropleth maps were used to identify geographic disparities of COVID-19 risk and its predictors at the ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) spatial scale. Global negative binomial and local geographically weighted negative binomial models were used to identify predictors of ZCTA-level geographic disparities of COVID-19 risk. Results: There were geographic disparities in COVID-19 risk. Risks tended to be higher in ZCTAs with high percentages of the population with a bachelors degree (p<0.0001) and obesity hospitalizations (p<0.0001). Conversely, risks tended to be lower in ZCTAs with high percentages of the population working in agriculture (p<0.0001). However, the association between agricultural occupation and COVID-19 risk was modified by per capita between ZCTA visits. Areas that had both high per capita between ZCTA visits and high percentages of the population employed in agriculture had high COVID-19 risks. The strength of association between agricultural occupation and COVID-19 risk varied by geographic location. Conclusions: Geographic Information Systems, global and local models are useful for identifying geographic disparities and predictors of COVID-19 risk. Geographic disparities of COVID-19 risk exist in the St. Louis area and are explained by differences in sociodemographic factors, population movements, and obesity hospitalization risks. The latter is particularly concerning due to the growing prevalence of obesity and the known immunological impairments among obese individuals. Therefore, future studies need to focus on improving our understanding of the relationships between COVID-19 vaccination efficacy, obesity and waning of immunity among obese individuals so as to better guide vaccination regimens, reduce disparities and improve population health for all.


2021 ◽  
pp. 45-64
Author(s):  
Petra Molnar

AbstractPeople on the move are often left out of conversations around technological development and become guinea pigs for testing new surveillance tools before bringing them to the wider population. These experiments range from big data predictions about population movements in humanitarian crises to automated decision-making in immigration and refugee applications to AI lie detectors at European airports. The Covid-19 pandemic has seen an increase of technological solutions presented as viable ways to stop its spread. Governments’ move toward biosurveillance has increased tracking, automated drones, and other technologies that purport to manage migration. However, refugees and people crossing borders are disproportionately targeted, with far-reaching impacts on various human rights. Drawing on interviews with affected communities in Belgium and Greece in 2020, this chapter explores how technological experiments on refugees are often discriminatory, breach privacy, and endanger lives. Lack of regulation of such technological experimentation and a pre-existing opaque decision-making ecosystem creates a governance gap that leaves room for far-reaching human rights impacts in this time of exception, with private sector interest setting the agenda. Blanket technological solutions do not address the root causes of displacement, forced migration, and economic inequality – all factors exacerbating the vulnerabilities communities on the move face in these pandemic times.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Sarah R. Supp ◽  
Gil Bohrer ◽  
John Fieberg ◽  
Frank A. La Sorte

AbstractAs human and automated sensor networks collect increasingly massive volumes of animal observations, new opportunities have arisen to use these data to infer or track species movements. Sources of broad scale occurrence datasets include crowdsourced databases, such as eBird and iNaturalist, weather surveillance radars, and passive automated sensors including acoustic monitoring units and camera trap networks. Such data resources represent static observations, typically at the species level, at a given location. Nonetheless, by combining multiple observations across many locations and times it is possible to infer spatially continuous population-level movements. Population-level movement characterizes the aggregated movement of individuals comprising a population, such as range contractions, expansions, climate tracking, or migration, that can result from physical, behavioral, or demographic processes. A desire to model population movements from such forms of occurrence data has led to an evolving field that has created new analytical and statistical approaches that can account for spatial and temporal sampling bias in the observations. The insights generated from the growth of population-level movement research can complement the insights from focal tracking studies, and elucidate mechanisms driving changes in population distributions at potentially larger spatial and temporal scales. This review will summarize current broad-scale occurrence datasets, discuss the latest approaches for utilizing them in population-level movement analyses, and highlight studies where such analyses have provided ecological insights. We outline the conceptual approaches and common methodological steps to infer movements from spatially distributed occurrence data that currently exist for terrestrial animals, though similar approaches may be applicable to plants, freshwater, or marine organisms.


Author(s):  
Aram Kosyan

The cuneiform Hittite texts of the XV-XIV centuries BC contain important information dealing with at least two different population movements happened along the Upper Euphrates region. First of these is fixed in the treaty signed between the Hittite king Tudḫaliyaš II (second part of the XV century BC) and Šunaššura, king of Kizzuwatna. The second migration took place later, during the reign of Tudḫaliyaš III. This second migration is of interest since in that population movement was involved a great number of people from different parts of Asia Minor. The study of several Hittite prayers compiled during the reign of Arnuwandaš I allow to assume that this second migration is definitely connected with continuous famine, hunger, plague and attacks of neighboring countries which could force the population of several regions to migrate first to Išuwa and from there to Ḫayaša.


2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Author(s):  
Robert E.B. Lucas

This introductory chapter outlines the scope of the book and sets out its central objectives, namely, examining the magnitude, nature, causes, and consequences of population movements between the rural and urban sectors of developing countries, and emphasizing the reasons for addressing these issues. Two broad components in approaching these topics are distinguished: first, a review of the existing literature on each aspect, though some key limitations of these cumulative contributions are noted; and second, an introduction of extensive new evidence, derived from a database assembled for present purposes. These data encompass seventy-five low- and middle-income countries in Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Latin America, and the Caribbean. The volume covers a wide set of facets and implications of migration across the rural-urban divide, and this initial chapter also incorporates a brief preview of these data in summarizing the content of each ensuing chapter.


Author(s):  
Robert E.B. Lucas

The magnitude, nature, causes, and consequences of population movements between rural and urban sectors of developing countries are examined. The prior literature is reviewed and is found to be limited in key dimensions. Evidence presented from a new database encompasses nationally representative data on seventy-five developing countries. Several measures of migration propensities are derived for the separate countries. The situation in each country is documented, both in historical context and following the time of enumeration. Rural-urban migrants enjoy major gains; those who do not move forego substantial, potential gains. Barriers to migrating are very real for disadvantaged groups. Migration among ethnolinguistic communities is a pervasive theme; the context in which each group lives is detailed. Upward mobility in incomes in towns is affirmed, and the departure of adults from rural homes raises the living standards of the family left behind, but consequent separation of married couples is endemic to particular societies. Reclassification of rural areas as urban is shown to be more important than net rural-urban moves in incremental urbanization and rural-urban moves are less permanent than normally portrayed. A contention of symmetry between rural-urban and urban-rural migration propensities is rejected, and indications that these twin movements result in sorting of labor by skills are not supported. Moreover, step and onward migration are not as common as popularly claimed. Previously neglected topics studied include autonomous migration by women, child migration, and networks at origin. Policies to limit rural-urban migration are questioned, and as climate change continues, planning for managed urban growth is vital.


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