antifibrotic therapy
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Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 143
Kazutaka Takehara ◽  
Yasuhiko Koga ◽  
Yoshimasa Hachisu ◽  
Mitsuyoshi Utsugi ◽  
Yuri Sawada ◽  

Antifibrotic agents have been widely used in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Long-term continuation of antifibrotic therapy is required for IPF treatment to prevent disease progression. However, antifibrotic treatment has considerable adverse events, and the continuation of treatment is uncertain in many cases. Therefore, we examined and compared the continuity of treatment between pirfenidone and nintedanib in patients with IPF. We retrospectively enrolled 261 consecutive IPF patients who received antifibrotic treatment from six core facilities in Gunma Prefecture from 2009 to 2018. Among them, 77 patients were excluded if the antifibrotic agent was switched or if the observation period was less than a year. In this study, 134 patients treated with pirfenidone and 50 treated with nintedanib were analyzed. There was no significant difference in patient background, discontinuation rate of antifibrotic treatment over time, and survival rate between the two groups. However, the discontinuation rate due to adverse events within one year of antifibrotic treatment was significantly higher in the nintedanib group than in the pirfenidone group (76% vs. 37%, p < 0.001). Furthermore, the discontinuation rate due to adverse events in nintedanib was higher than that of pirfenidone treatment throughout the observation period (70.6% vs. 31.2%, p = 0.016). The pirfenidone group tended to be discontinued due to acute exacerbation or transfer to another facility. The results of this study suggest that better management of adverse events with nintedanib leads to more continuous treatment that prevents disease progression and acute exacerbations, thus improving prognosis in patients with IPF.

2021 ◽  
Barak Pertzov ◽  
Einat Shmueli ◽  
Haim Ben Zvi ◽  
Amir Massarweh ◽  
Tamar Barkan ◽  

Abstract Background: Patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) are at high risk of severe COVID-19 infection. Additionally, their anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic treatment may cause immunosuppression. Nevertheless, their ability to mount an adequate immune response to messenger RNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines was not evaluated. We aimed to evaluate the humoral response after the BNT162b2 vaccine among idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients treated with antifibrotic therapy and among non-IPF ILD patients treated with anti-inflammatory therapy.Methods: We conducted an observational prospective cohort study to evaluate the rate of anti-spike (S-IgG) antibodies after two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine in patients with ILD. The cohort included 40 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) treated with anti-fibrotic therapy and 29 patients with non-IPF ILD treated with anti-inflammatory therapy. For S-IgG titer measurement one serology test was drawn from all patients 4-6 months after the second vaccine dose. Two age and sex matched control groups were created from a healthy control cohort of 107 patients. The study was conducted in Rabin Medical Center (Israel) between June to August 2021.Results: All patients in the anti-fibrotic arm were seropositive (40/40), corresponding to the matched control group (P=1.0). The antifibrotic arm had a significantly lower median antibody titer in comparison to the matched control group (361.10 [ IQR, 207-811] AU/ml vs 820.75 [IQR, 459-1313] AU/ml; P<0.001). Only 48.3% (14/29) of patients in the anti-inflammatory arm were seropositive in comparison to 100% (29/29) in the healthy control group (P<0.001). The anti-inflammatory arm had a significantly lower median antibody titer in comparison to the healthy control group (39.6 [ IQR, 4.25-165] AU/ml vs 970.1 [IQR, 505-1926] AU/ml; P<0.001). Conclusion: IPF patients treated with antifibrotic therapy mount an adequate immune response after 2 doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine, maintain a 100% seropositivity rate, 4-6 months after vaccination. However, their antibody titer was reduced in comparison to a healthy control group. Among patients with non-IPF ILD, treated with anti-inflammatory therapy, 48% were seronegative 4-6 months after the second vaccine dose, moreover treatment with rituximab caused significant immunosuppression, even in comparison to other anti-inflammatory treatments.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Abigél Margit Kolonics-Farkas ◽  
Martina Šterclová ◽  
Nesrin Mogulkoc ◽  
Katarzyna Lewandowska ◽  
Veronika Müller ◽  

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a rare lung disease with poor prognosis. The diagnosis and treatment possibilities are dependent on the health systems of countries. Hence, comparison among countries is difficult due to data heterogeneity. Our aim was to analyse patients with IPF in Central and Eastern Europe using the uniform data from the European Multipartner IPF registry (EMPIRE), which at the time of analysis involved 10 countries. Newly diagnosed IPF patients (N = 2,492, between March 6, 2012 and May 12, 2020) from Czech Republic (N = 971, 39.0%), Turkey (N = 505, 20.3%), Poland (N = 285, 11.4%), Hungary (N = 216, 8.7%), Slovakia (N = 149, 6.0%), Israel (N = 120, 4.8%), Serbia (N = 95, 3.8%), Croatia (N = 87, 3.5%), Austria (N = 55, 2.2%), and Bulgaria (N = 9, 0.4%) were included, and Macedonia, while a member of the registry, was excluded from this analysis due to low number of cases (N = 5) at this timepoint. Baseline characteristics, smoking habit, comorbidities, lung function values, CO diffusion capacity, high-resolution CT (HRCT) pattern, and treatment data were analysed. Patients were significantly older in Austria than in the Czech Republic, Turkey, Hungary, Slovakia, Israel, and Serbia. Ever smokers were most common in Croatia (84.1%) and least frequent in Serbia (39.2%) and Slovakia (42.6%). The baseline forced vital capacity (FVC) was &gt;80% in 44.6% of the patients, between 50 and 80% in 49.3%, and &lt;50% in 6.1%. Most IPF patients with FVC &gt;80% were registered in Poland (63%), while the least in Israel (25%). A typical usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern was present in 67.6% of all patients, ranging from 43.5% (Austria) to 77.2% (Poland). The majority of patients received antifibrotic therapy (64.5%); 37.4% used pirfenidone (range 7.4–39.8% between countries); and 34.9% nintedanib (range 12.6–56.0% between countries) treatment. In 6.8% of the cases, a therapy switch was initiated between the 2 antifibrotic agents. Significant differences in IPF patient characteristics and access to antifibrotic therapies exist in EMPIRE countries, which needs further investigation and strategies to improve and harmonize patient care and therapy availability in this region.

Thorax ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. thoraxjnl-2021-217652
Na'ama Avitzur ◽  
Elizabeth M Noth ◽  
Mubasiru Lamidi ◽  
Steven D Nathan ◽  
Harold R Collard ◽  

BackgroundAir pollution exposure is associated with disease severity, progression and mortality in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Combined impacts of environmental and socioeconomic factors on outcomes in patients with IPF are unknown. The objectives of this study were to characterise the relationships between relative environmental and social disadvantage with clinical outcomes in patients with IPF.MethodsPatients with IPF were identified from a longitudinal database at University of California, San Francisco. Residential addresses were geocoded and linked to the CalEnviroScreen 3.0 (CES), a tool that quantifies environmental burden in California communities, combining population, environmental and pollution vulnerability into individual and composite scores (higher scores indicating greater disadvantage). Unadjusted and adjusted linear and logistic regression and Fine and Gray proportional hazards models were used.Results603 patients were included. Higher CES was associated with lower baseline forced vital capacity (β=−0.073, 95% CI −0.13 to −0.02; p=0.006) and diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (β=−0.11, 95% CI −0.16 to −0.06; p<0.001). Patients in the highest population vulnerability quartile were less likely to be on antifibrotic therapy (OR=0.33; 95% CI 0.18 to 0.60; p=0.001) at time of enrolment, compared with those in the lowest quartile. An association between CES and mortality was suggested, but sensitivity analyses demonstrated inconsistent results. Relative disadvantage of the study cohort appeared lower compared with the general population.ConclusionsHigher environmental exposures and vulnerability were associated with lower baseline lung function and lower antifibrotic use, suggesting that relative socioenvironmental disadvantage has meaningful impacts on patients with IPF.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Alexandra Nagy ◽  
Tamas Nagy ◽  
Abigel Margit Kolonics-Farkas ◽  
Noemi Eszes ◽  
Krisztina Vincze ◽  

A subset of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) with autoimmune traits—including connective tissue disease-associated ILD (CTD-ILD) and interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF)—develops progressive fibrosing (PF)-ILD. The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and predictors of longitudinal lung function (LF) changes in autoimmune PF-ILD patients in a real-world setting. All ILD cases with confirmed or suspected autoimmunity discussed by a multidisciplinary team (MDT) between January 2017 and June 2019 (n = 511) were reviewed, including 63 CTD-ILD and 44 IPAF patients. Detailed medical history, LF test, diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO), 6-min walk test (6MWT), blood gas analysis (BGA), and high-resolution computer tomography (HRCT) were performed. Longitudinal follow-up for functional parameters was at least 2 years. Women were overrepresented (70.1%), and the age of the IPAF group was significantly higher as compared to the CTD-ILD group (p &lt; 0.001). Dyspnea, crackles, and weight loss were significantly more common in the IPAF group as compared to the CTD-ILD group (84.1% vs. 58.7%, p = 0.006; 72.7% vs. 49.2%, p = 0.017; 29.6% vs. 4.8%, p = 0.001). Forced vital capacity (FVC) yearly decline was more pronounced in IPAF (53.1 ± 0.3 vs. 16.7 ± 0.2 ml; p = 0.294), while the majority of patients (IPAF: 68% and CTD-ILD 82%) did not deteriorate. Factors influencing progression included malignancy as a comorbidity, anti-SS-A antibodies, and post-exercise pulse increase at 6MWT. Antifibrotic therapy was administered significantly more often in IPAF as compared to CTD-ILD patients (n = 13, 29.5% vs. n = 5, 7.9%; p = 0.007), and importantly, this treatment reduced lung function decline when compared to non-treated patients. Majority of patients improved or were stable regarding lung function, and autoimmune-associated PF-ILD was more common in patients having IPAF. Functional decline predictors were anti-SS-A antibodies and marked post-exercise pulse increase at 6MWT. Antifibrotic treatments reduced progression in progressive fibrosing CTD-ILD and IPAF, emphasizing the need for guidelines including optimal treatment start and combination therapies in this special patient group.

Yu Wu ◽  
Lili Xu ◽  
Gang Cao ◽  
Lingtian Min ◽  
Tingting Dong

Qingfei Paidu decoction (QFPD) has been repeatedly recommended for the clinical treatment of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in multiple provinces throughout China. A possible complication of COVID-19 lung involvement is pulmonary fibrosis, which causes chronic breathing difficulties and affects the patient’s quality of life. Therefore, there is an important question regarding whether QFPD can alleviate the process of pulmonary fibrosis and its potential mechanisms. To explore this issue, this study demonstrated the anti-pulmonary fibrosis activity and mode of action of QFPD in vivo and in vitro pulmonary fibrosis models and network pharmacology. The results showed that QFPD effectively ameliorated the bleomycin-induced inflammation and collagen deposition in mice and significantly improved the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pulmonary fibrosis in mice. In addition, QFPD inhibited bleomycin-induced M2 polarization of macrophages in pulmonary tissues. An in-depth study of the mechanism of QFPD in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis based on network pharmacology and molecular simulation revealed that SRC was the main target of QFPD and sitosterol (a key compound in QFPD). QFPD and sitosterol regulate the EMT process and M2 polarization of macrophages by inhibiting the activation of SRC, thereby alleviating pulmonary fibrosis in mice. COVID-19 infection might produce severe fibrosis, and antifibrotic therapy with QFPD may be valuable in preventing severe neocoronavirus disease in patients with IPF, which could be a key factor explaining the role of QFPD in the treatment of COVID-19.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
James Patrick Finnerty ◽  
Aravind Ponnuswamy ◽  
Prosjenjit Dutta ◽  
Ammar Abdelaziz ◽  
Hafiz Kamil

Abstract Background Research questions To compare the efficacy of nintedanib and pirfenidone in the treatment of progressive pulmonary fibrosis; and to compare the efficacy of anti-fibrotic therapy (grouping nintedanib and pirfenidone together) in patients with IPF versus patients with progressive lung fibrosis not classified as IPF. Study design and methods A search of databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and was conducted. Studies were included if they were randomised controlled trials of pirfenidone or nintedanib in adult patients with IPF or non-IPF patients, and with extractable data on mortality or decline in forced vital capacity (FVC). Random effects meta-analyses were performed on changes in FVC and where possible on mortality in the selected studies. Results 13 trials of antifibrotic therapy were pooled in a meta-analysis (with pirfenidone and nintedanib considered together as anti-fibrotic therapy). The change in FVC was expressed as a standardised difference to allow pooling of percentage and absolute changes. The mean effect size in the IPF studies was − 0.305 (SE 0.043) (p < 0.001) and in the non-IPF studies the figures were − 0.307 (SE 0.063) (p < 0.001). There was no evidence of any difference between the two groups for standardised rate of FVC decline (p = 0.979). Pooling IPF and non-IPF showed a significant reduction in mortality, with mean risk ratio of 07.01 in favour of antifibrotic therapy (p = 0.008). A separate analysis restricted to non-IPF did not show a significant reduction in mortality (risk ratio 0.908 (0.547 to 1.508), p = 0.71. Interpretation Anti-fibrotic therapy offers protection against the rate of decline in FVC in progressive lung fibrosis, with similar efficacy shown between the two anti-fibrotic agents currently in clinical use. There was no significant difference in efficacy of antifibrotic therapy whether the underlying condition was IPF or non-IPF with progressive fibrosis, supporting the hypothesis of a common pathogenesis. The data in this analysis was insufficient to be confident about a reduction in mortality in non-IPF with anti-fibrotic therapy. Trial Registration PROSPERO, registration number CRD42021266046.

2021 ◽  
pp. 101562
Margaret Kypreos ◽  
Tyonn Barbera ◽  
Chad A. Newton ◽  
Craig S. Glazer ◽  
Traci N. Adams

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Zhoulei Li ◽  
Baolan Lu ◽  
Jinjiang Lin ◽  
Shaofu He ◽  
Li Huang ◽  

Fibrostenosis is a serious complication of Crohn’s disease (CD), affecting approximately one-half of all patients. Surgical resection is the typical clinical end due to ineffective antifibrotic therapy mainly through anti-inflammatory treatment and fibrosis can be reverted only at early stages. Mover, human fibrotic disorders is known to be associated with aging process. Thus, accurate monitoring of the progression of fibrosis is crucial for CD management as well as can be benefit to aging related fibrosis. The excessive deposition of type I collagen (ColI) is the core point in major complications of fibrosis, including that in patients with CD and aging related fibrosis. Therefore, a MR imaging probe (EP-3533) targeted ColI was employed to stage bowel fibrosis in CD using a rat model and to compare its efficiency with the common MR imaging contrast medium gadopentetatedimeglumine (Gd-DTPA). The bowel fibrotic rat model was established with different degrees of bowel fibrosis, were scanned using a 3.0-T MRI scanner with a specialized animal coil. MRI sequence including T1 mapping and T1-weighed imaging were performed before and after injecting the MRI probe (EP-3533 or Gd-DTPA). The T1 relaxation time (T1 value) and change in the contrast-to-noise ratio (ΔCNR) were measured to evaluate bowel fibrosis. Masson’s trichrome staining was performed to determine the severity of fibrosis. EP-3533 offered a better longitudinal relaxivity (r1) with 67.537 L/mmol·s, which was approximately 13 times that of Gd-DTPA. The T1 value on bowel segments was reduced in the images from EP-3533 compared to that from Gd-DTPA (F = 16.478; p &lt; 0.001). Additionally, a better correlation between ΔCNR calculated from EP-3533 imaging and bowel fibrosis (AUC = 0.846) was determined 10 min after enhanced media administration than with Gd-DTPA (AUC = 0.532). The 10th-minute ΔCNR performed using the ColI probe showed the best correlation with the severity of bowel fibrosis (r = 0.538; p = 0.021). Our results demonstrates that targeted MRI probe (EP-3533) supplies a better enhanced effect compared to Gd-DTPA and could be a promising method to evaluate the progression and monitor the therapeutic response of bowel fibrosis.

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