reduced body
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 887
Shiqiang Liu ◽  
Pengyu Fu ◽  
Kaiting Ning ◽  
Rui Wang ◽  
Baoqiang Yang ◽  

Exposure to high altitude environment leads to skeletal muscle atrophy. As a hormone secreted by skeletal muscles after exercise, irisin contributes to promoting muscle regeneration and ameliorating skeletal muscle atrophy, but its role in hypoxia-induced skeletal muscle atrophy is still unclear. Our results showed that 4 w of hypoxia exposure significantly reduced body weight and gastrocnemius muscle mass of mice, as well as grip strength and the duration time of treadmill exercise. Hypoxic treatment increased HIF-1α expression and decreased both the circulation level of irisin and its precursor protein FNDC5 expression in skeletal muscle. In in vitro, CoCl2-induced chemical hypoxia and 1% O2 ambient hypoxia both reduced FNDC5, along with the increase in HIF-1α. Moreover, the decline in the area and diameter of myotubes caused by hypoxia were rescued by inhibiting HIF-1α via YC-1. Collectively, our research indicated that FNDC5/irisin was negatively regulated by HIF-1α and could participate in the regulation of muscle atrophy caused by hypoxia.

Metabolites ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 44
Genki Tanaka ◽  
Nozomi Hagihara ◽  
Ryota Hosomi ◽  
Takaki Shimono ◽  
Seiji Kanda ◽  

Protein derived from fish has not only nutritional properties but also health-promoting properties. Few studies have examined the effect of dietary Alaska pollock protein (APP) on the anticolitis effect reported to be associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study investigated the effect of APP intake on colitis symptoms, gut microbiota, and its metabolites in the experimental colitis mouse model induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups: (1) DSS-untreated mice fed an American Institute of Nutrition (AIN) 93G diet (protein source is casein), (2) DSS-treated mice fed an AIN93G diet, and (3) DSS-treated mice fed an APP diet. After the mice were fed the diets for 21 days, experimental colitis was induced by three cycles of 2% DSS administration for 5 days followed by washouts over the course of 5 days. APP-reduced body weight loss increased the disease activity index, and elevated spleen weight and alleviated colon length shortening and colonic tissue damage. Furthermore, APP altered the structure and composition of the microbiota and short-chain fatty acids in feces. Since APP intake alleviates experimental colitis induced by DSS administration through alterations in the gut microbiota and its metabolites, we deduced that APP would inhibit MetS progression via colitis suppression.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Zhifeng Wu ◽  
Wei Cheng ◽  
Zhenyu Wang ◽  
Shuaifei Feng ◽  
Huicong Zou ◽  

There is an interaction and bidirectional selection between dietary intake and gut microbiota due to the different efficiency of nutrients in the gut. The nutritional composition of germ-free (GF) diets differs significantly from specific pathogen-free (SPF) diets. There is, however, no data revealing how SPF animals from the same microbial background respond to them and if they affect the host. We examined the growth of SPF mice on the GF diet and found that it reduced body weight, intestinal length and intestinal morphology. Interestingly, the GF diet increased the level of pro-inflammatory bacteria in the gut of SPF mice, including Proteobacteria, Burkholderiaceae, Alloprevotella and Parasutterella. Furthermore, GF diets caused significant increases in malondialdehyde (MDA), IL-1β, IL-6, and D-lactate levels in the serum of SPF mice and significantly altered their serum metabolic profile, especially amino acid metabolism. In conclusion, GF diets are not suitable for the growth and development of SPF mice. These findings, based on the role of gut microbiota in diet selection, provide new insights into the scientific and rational use of experimental animal diets.

2022 ◽  
Julia Tiede ◽  
Benjamin Iuliano ◽  
Claudio Gratton

Abstract Context: Agricultural intensification is contributing to a global species decline. Underlying mechanisms include toxic effects of pesticides on non-target organisms and reductions in habitat and food availability. However, the effects of agricultural intensification on body condition, particularly of ecosystem service providing arthropods, are poorly understood.Objectives: Here, we investigated whether variations in the body condition of common lady beetle species (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) can be explained by the composition and configuration of the surrounding landscape. Assuming strong seasonal variation in food availability in intensively farmed regions, we included the entire period of lady beetle activity in our study.Methods: Lady beetles were collected from April to September 2011 in 30 landscapes in southern Wisconsin, USA. We examined how body size, body density, and lipid content of the beetles responded to the percentage of intensive cropland, habitat diversity, and edge density in the surrounding landscape.Results: The strongest predictor of body condition was the percentage of intensive cropland. For every 10% increase in cropland, body density decreased by about 3.9% and fat content by 6.4%. Landscape diversity and edge density correlated with body condition of individual species.Conclusions: In agriculturally intensified landscapes, lady beetles with reduced body condition may produce fewer offspring, have lower survival rates, and exert less effective pest control. Thus, our results suggest a mechanistic link between landscape patterns and observed declines in lady beetle populations. Our results also show that the expansion of monocultures affects even common cropland-associated species such as Harmonia axyridis, suggesting a long-term decline in biocontrol services in simplified agricultural landscapes.

Antioxidants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 80
Simona Terzo ◽  
Alessandro Attanzio ◽  
Pasquale Calvi ◽  
Flavia Mulè ◽  
Luisa Tesoriere ◽  

Obesity-related dysmetabolic conditions are amongst the most common causes of death globally. Indicaxanthin, a bioavailable betalain pigment from Opuntia ficus-indica fruit, has been demonstrated to modulate redox-dependent signalling pathways, exerting significant anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo. In light of the strict interconnections between inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance (IR), a nutritionally relevant dose of indicaxanthin has been evaluated in a high-fat diet (HFD) model of obesity-related IR. To this end, biochemical and histological analysis, oxidative stress and inflammation evaluations in liver and adipose tissue were carried out. Our results showed that indicaxanthin treatment significantly reduced body weight, daily food intake and visceral fat mass. Moreover, indicaxanthin administration induced remarkable, beneficial effects on HFD-induced glucose dysmetabolism, reducing fasting glycaemia and insulinaemia, improving glucose and insulin tolerance and restoring the HOMA index to physiological values. These effects were associated with a reduction in hepatic and adipose tissue oxidative stress and inflammation. A decrease in RONS, malondialdehyde and NO levels, in TNF-α, CCL-2 and F4-80 gene expression, in p65, p-JNK, COX-2 and i-NOS protein levels, in crown-like structures and hepatic inflammatory foci was, indeed, observed. The current findings encourage further clinical studies to confirm the effectiveness of indicaxanthin to prevent and treat obesity-related dysmetabolic conditions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-19
Martina La Spina ◽  
Michele Azzolini ◽  
Andrea Salmaso ◽  
Sofia Parrasia ◽  
Eva Galletta ◽  

Pterostilbene (Pt) is a potentially beneficial plant phenol. In contrast to many other natural compounds (including the more celebrated resveratrol), Pt concentrations producing significant effects in vitro can also be reached with relative ease in vivo. Here we focus on some of the mechanisms underlying its activity, those involved in the activation of transcription factor EB (TFEB). A set of processes leading to this outcome starts with the generation of ROS, attributed to the interaction of Pt with complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and spreads to involve Ca2+ mobilization from the ER/mitochondria pool, activation of CREB and AMPK, and inhibition of mTORC1. TFEB migration to the nucleus results in the upregulation of autophagy and lysosomal and mitochondrial biogenesis. Cells exposed to several μM levels of Pt experience a mitochondrial crisis, an indication for using low doses in therapeutic or nutraceutical applications. Pt afforded significant functional improvements in a zebrafish embryo model of ColVI-related myopathy, a pathology which also involves defective autophagy. Furthermore, long-term supplementation with Pt reduced body weight gain and increased transcription levels of Ppargc1a and Tfeb in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. These in vivo findings strengthen the in vitro observations and highlight the therapeutic potential of this natural compound.

2021 ◽  
Tianwen Sun ◽  
Fei Wang ◽  
Gaojian Hu ◽  
Zhizhou Li

Abstract Purpose: Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) possesses strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. This study aims to explore the underlying mechanism of Sal B to improve the obesity-related osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: C57BL/6J male mice were fed with a standard diet, a high fat diet (HFD), or HFD with Sal B (25 mg/kg), and mouse body weights and osteoarticular inflammatory factor levels were examined. Mouse chondrogenic cell line ATDC5 were transfected with lncRNA KCNQ1 overlapping transcript 1 small hairpin RNA (KCNQ1OT1 shRNA), miR-128-3p mimic or Sirtuin-1 small interfering RNA (SIRT1 siRNA), then stimulated with Palmitic acid (PA) followed by the treatment of Sal B. Then, inflammatory response, apoptosis, and autophagy of ATDC5 cells in different groups were detected. Results: Sal B reduced body weight, decreased the levels of inflammatory markers, and improved cartilage damage in OA mice. KCNQ1OT1 was downregulated in OA mice and PA- stimulated ATDC5 cells. Sal B protected ATDC5 cells against PA-mediated inflammation, apoptosis, and the inhibition of autophagy, while knockdown of KCNQ1OT1 reversed these results. KCNQ1OT1 was found to be functioned as a ceRNA to bind and downregulate the expression of miR-128-3p that was upregulated in PA-induced cells. Furthermore, SIRT1 was verified as a target of miR-128-3p. MiR-128-3p overexpression reversed the effects of Sal B on inflammatory response, apoptosis, and autophagy in PA-stimulated cells, and knockdown of SIRT1 displayed similar results. Conclusion: Sal B exerted a chondroprotective effect by upregulating KCNQ1OT1, which indicates Sal B can used for a therapeutic agent in obesity-related OA.

Geum Hwa Lee ◽  
Cheng Peng ◽  
Hwa-Young Lee ◽  
Seon-Ah Park ◽  
The-Hiep Hoang ◽  

Background: Adiposity is a major health-risk factor, and D-allulose has beneficial effects on adiposity-related metabolic disturbances. However, the modes of action underlying anti-hyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activity are partly understood. Objective: This study investigated the in vivo and in vitro effects of D-allulose involved in adipogenesis and activation of the AMPK/SIRT1/PGC-1α pathway in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rats. Design: In this study, 8-week-old male SD (Sprague Dawley) rats were divided into five groups (n = 8/group), (1) Control (chow diet, 3.5%); (2) 60% HFD; (3) 60% HFD supplemented with allulose powder (AP) at 0.4 g/kg; (4) 60% HFD supplemented with allulose liquid (AL) at 0.4 g/kg; (5) 60% HFD supplemented with glucose (AL) at 0.4 g/kg. All the group received the product through oral gavage for 6 weeks. Control and HFD groups were gavaged with double-distilled water. Results: Rats receiving AP and AL showed reduced body weight gain and fat accumulation in HFD-fed rats. Also, supplementation of AL/AP regulated the cytokine secretion and recovered biochemical parameters to alleviate metabolic dysfunction and hepatic injury. Additionally, AL/AP administration improved adipocyte differentiation via regulation of the PPARγ and C/EBPα signaling pathway and adipogenesis-related genes owing to the combined effect of the AMPK/SIRT1 pathway. Furthermore, AL/AP treatment mediated PGC-1α expression triggering mitochondrial genesis via activating the AMPK phosphorylation and SIRT1 deacetylation activity in adipose tissue. Conclusion: The anti-adiposity activity of D-allulose is observed on a marked alleviation in adipogenesis and AMPK/SIRT1/PGC-1α deacetylation in the adipose tissue of HFD-fed rat.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Francesco Russano ◽  
Paolo Del Fiore ◽  
Claudia Di Prata ◽  
Andrea Pasqual ◽  
Roberto Marconato ◽  

The treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous localizations from breast cancer (BC) is still a therapeutic challenge. Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is one of the available options, and it is characterized by the association between the administration of a chemotherapic agent (Bleomycin) with the temporary raise of permeability of the cellular membrane induced by the local administration of electrical impulses (electroporation). ECT represents an effective therapy for loco-regional control of this disease. This study aimed to investigate the predictive factors of response in cutaneous and subcutaneous localizations from breast cancer treated with ECT. We decided to evaluate the response to this treatment in 55 patients who underwent ECT between January 2013 and March 2020 at our Institute. We performed a monocentric retrospective cohort study. ECT was administered following the ESOPE (European Standard Operative Procedure of Electrochemotherapy) guidelines, a set of criteria updated in 2018 by a panel of European experts on ECT who defined the indications for selecting the patients who can benefit from the ECT treatment and the ones for technically performing the procedure. The responses were evaluated with the RECIST criteria (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumor). We found after 12 weeks of treatment a complete response (CR) in 64% of our patients. From the analysis divided for subgroups of covariates is emerged that lower BMI, reduced body surface, and absence of previous radiation treatment could be predictive for a better complete response. This study suggests that the efficacy of the ECT treatment is related to the concurrent systemic therapies while administering ECT. The association between ECT and immunotherapy has offered better results than the association between ECT and chemotherapy (p-value = 0.0463). So, ECT is a valuable tool in the treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases from breast cancer and its efficacy in local control of these lesions improves when it is well planned in a therapeutic scenario.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Xidi Wang ◽  
Patrick Sipila ◽  
Zizhen Si ◽  
Jesusa L. Rosales ◽  
Xu Gao ◽  

AbstractDevelopmental disorders characterized by small body size have been linked to CDK5RAP2 loss-of-function mutations, but the mechanisms underlying which remain obscure. Here, we demonstrate that knocking down CDK5RAP2 in human fibroblasts triggers premature cell senescence that is recapitulated in Cdk5rap2an/an mouse embryonic fibroblasts and embryos, which exhibit reduced body weight and size, and increased senescence-associated (SA)-β-gal staining compared to Cdk5rap2+/+ and Cdk5rap2+/an embryos. Interestingly, CDK5RAP2-knockdown human fibroblasts show increased p53 Ser15 phosphorylation that does not correlate with activation of p53 kinases, but rather correlates with decreased level of the p53 phosphatase, WIP1. Ectopic WIP1 expression reverses the senescent phenotype in CDK5RAP2-knockdown cells, indicating that senescence in these cells is linked to WIP1 downregulation. CDK5RAP2 interacts with GSK3β, causing increased inhibitory GSK3β Ser9 phosphorylation and inhibiting the activity of GSK3β, which phosphorylates β-catenin, tagging β-catenin for degradation. Thus, loss of CDK5RAP2 decreases GSK3β Ser9 phosphorylation and increases GSK3β activity, reducing nuclear β-catenin, which affects the expression of NF-κB target genes such as WIP1. Consequently, loss of CDK5RAP2 or β-catenin causes WIP1 downregulation. Inhibition of GSK3β activity restores β-catenin and WIP1 levels in CDK5RAP2-knockdown cells, reducing p53 Ser15 phosphorylation and preventing senescence in these cells. Conversely, inhibition of WIP1 activity increases p53 Ser15 phosphorylation and senescence in CDK5RAP2-depleted cells lacking GSK3β activity. These findings indicate that loss of CDK5RAP2 promotes premature cell senescence through GSK3β/β-catenin downregulation of WIP1. Premature cell senescence may contribute to reduced body size associated with CDK5RAP2 loss-of-function.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document