bimolecular fluorescence
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2022 ◽  
Minghai Chen ◽  
Chuang Yan ◽  
Luping Zheng ◽  
Xian-En Zhang

Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and its derivative molecular biosensor systems provide effective tools for visualizing biomolecular interactions. The introduction of red and near-infrared fluorescence emission proteins has expanded the spectrum...

2021 ◽  
Laura Torres-Garcia ◽  
Joana M.P. Domingues ◽  
Edoardo Brandi ◽  
Caroline Haikal ◽  
Inês C. Brás ◽  

Abstract Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are characterized by pathological accumulation and aggregation of different amyloidogenic proteins, α-synuclein (aSyn) in PD, and amyloid-β (Aβ) and Tau in AD. Strikingly, few PD and AD patients’ brains exhibit pure pathology with most cases presenting mixed types of protein deposits in the brain. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) is a technique based on the complementation of two halves of a fluorescent protein, which allows direct visualization of protein-protein interactions. In the present study, we assessed the ability of aSyn and Tau to interact with each other. For in vitro evaluation, HEK293 and human neuroblastoma cells were used, while in vivo studies were performed by AAV6 injection in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of mice and rats. We observed that the co-expression of aSyn and Tau led to the emergence of fluorescence, reflecting the interaction of the proteins in cell lines, as well as in mouse and rat SNpc. Thus, our data indicates that aSyn and Tau are able to interact with each other in a biologically relevant context, and that the BiFC assay is an effective tool for studying aSyn-Tau interactions in vitro and in different rodent models in vivo.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Florian Schmitz ◽  
Jessica Glas ◽  
Richard Neutze ◽  
Kristina Hedfalk

AbstractInteractions between membrane proteins within a cellular environment are crucial for all living cells. Robust methods to screen and analyse membrane protein complexes are essential to shed light on the molecular mechanism of membrane protein interactions. Most methods for detecting protein:protein interactions (PPIs) have been developed to target the interactions of soluble proteins. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays allow the formation of complexes involving PPI partners to be visualized in vivo, irrespective of whether or not these interactions are between soluble or membrane proteins. In this study, we report the development of a screening approach which utilizes BiFC and applies flow cytometry to characterize membrane protein interaction partners in the host Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These data allow constructive complexes to be discriminated with statistical confidence from random interactions and potentially allows an efficient screen for PPIs in vivo within a high-throughput setup.

2021 ◽  
Manuel Halte ◽  
Mirka E. Wörmann ◽  
Maxim Bogisch ◽  
Marc Erhardt ◽  
Natalia Tschowri

AbstractThe widespread bacterial second messenger bis-(3’-5’)-cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is an important regulator of biofilm formation, virulence and cell differentiation. C-di-GMP-specific biosensors that allow detection and visualization of c-di-GMP levels in living cells are key to our understanding of how c-di-GMP fluctuations drive cellular responses. Here, we describe a novel c-di-GMP biosensor, CensYBL, that is based on c-di-GMP-induced dimerization of the effector protein BldD from Streptomyces resulting in bimolecular fluorescence complementation of split-YPet fusion proteins. As a proof-of-principle, we demonstrate that CensYBL is functional in detecting fluctuations in intracellular c-di-GMP levels in the Gram-negative model bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Using deletion mutants of c-di-GMP diguanylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases, we show that c-di-GMP dependent dimerization of CBldD-YPet results in fluorescence complementation reflecting intracellular c-di-GMP levels. Overall, we demonstrate that the CensYBL biosensor is a user-friendly and versatile tool that allows to investigate c-di-GMP variations using single-cell and population-wide experimental set-ups.ImportanceThe second messenger c-di-GMP controls various bacterial functions including development of resistant biofilm communities and transition into dormant spores. In vivo detection of c-di-GMP levels is therefore crucial for a better understanding of how intracellular c-di-GMP levels induce changes of bacterial physiology. Here, we describe the design of a novel c-di-GMP biosensor and demonstrate its effective application in investigating fluctuations in intracellular c-di-GMP levels in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium on a population-based and single-cell level.

2021 ◽  
Florent Velay ◽  
Melanie Soula ◽  
Marwa Mehrez ◽  
Stefano D’Alessandro ◽  
Christophe Laloi ◽  

SummaryThe bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay has emerged as one of the most popular methods for analysing protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in plant biology. This includes its increasing use as a tool for dissecting the molecular mechanisms of chloroplast function. However, the construction of chloroplast fusion proteins for BiFC can be difficult, and the availability and selection of appropriate controls is not trivial. Furthermore, the challenges of performing BiFC in restricted cellular compartments has not been specifically addressed. Here we describe the development of a flexible modular cloning-based toolkit (MoBiFC) for chloroplast BiFC and proximity labelling using synthetic biology principles. The approach facilitates the cloning process for chloroplast-targeted proteins, allows robust ratiometric quantification, and the toolkit comes with model positive and negative controls. Our study also highlights many potential pitfalls including the choice of fluorescent protein (FP) split, negative controls, cell type, and reference FP. Finally, we provide an example of how users can enrich the toolset by providing functional proximity labelling modules, and we discuss how MoBiFC could be further improved and extended to other compartments of the plant cell.

Emily K. Don ◽  
Alina Maschirow ◽  
Rowan A. W. Radford ◽  
Natalie M. Scherer ◽  
Andrés Vidal-Itriago ◽  

AbstractAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a form of motor neuron disease (MND) that is characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons within the spinal cord, brainstem, and motor cortex. Although ALS clinically manifests as a heterogeneous disease, with varying disease onset and survival, a unifying feature is the presence of ubiquitinated cytoplasmic protein inclusion aggregates containing TDP-43. However, the precise mechanisms linking protein inclusions and aggregation to neuronal loss are currently poorly understood. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) takes advantage of the association of fluorophore fragments (non-fluorescent on their own) that are attached to an aggregation-prone protein of interest. Interaction of the proteins of interest allows for the fluorescent reporter protein to fold into its native state and emit a fluorescent signal. Here, we combined the power of BiFC with the advantages of the zebrafish system to validate, optimize, and visualize the formation of ALS-linked aggregates in real time in a vertebrate model. We further provide in vivo validation of the selectivity of this technique and demonstrate reduced spontaneous self-assembly of the non-fluorescent fragments in vivo by introducing a fluorophore mutation. Additionally, we report preliminary findings on the dynamic aggregation of the ALS-linked hallmark proteins Fus and TDP-43 in their corresponding nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments using BiFC. Overall, our data demonstrates the suitability of this BiFC approach to study and characterize ALS-linked aggregate formation in vivo. Importantly, the same principle can be applied in the context of other neurodegenerative diseases and has therefore critical implications to advance our understanding of pathologies that underlie aberrant protein aggregation.

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